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First  Yearbook  ^QS--  Pressing  Problems,  Charles  De  Garmo  ;  Concentra- 

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OF    THE 





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There  will  be  two  meetings  at  Boston  for  the  discussion  of  these 
papers  by  the  active  members.  It  is  requested  that  the  active  mem- 
bership as  far  as  possible  attend  these  meetings  and  come  prepared  for 
careful  discussion. 

In  the  Summer  Sessions  of  Normal  Schools  and  Universities,  in 
different  parts  of  the  country,  meetings  will  be  held  for  the  discussion 
of  these  papers. 

Those  holding  such  meetings  should  send  to  the  University  of 
Chicago  Press  for  books  to  be  sold  at  such  meetings.  Any  of  the 
previous  YEARBOOKS  of  the  society  or  of  the  former  National  Herbart 
Society  can  be  secured  from  the  University  of  Chicago  Press,  Chicago, 




WILBUR  S.  JACKMAN,  School  of  Education,  University  of  Chicago,  President. 
CHARLES  DE  GARMO       -  Cornell  University,  New  York 

WILLIAM  L.  BRYAN    -  -   University  of  Indiana,  Bloomington,  Ind. 

DAVID  FELMLEY     -  -     State  Normal  University,  Normal,  111. 

C.  P.  CARY  State  Superintendent,  Madison,  Wis. 

CHARLES  A.  McMuRRY,  Northern  Illinois  State  Normal  School,  DeKalb, 
111.,  Secretary -Treasurer. 


These  papers  on  the  Relation  of  Theory  to  Practice  in  Education 
form  Part  II  of  the  YEARBOOK  for  1903. 

The  same  topic  will  be  further  discussed  in  the  papers  to  be  pub- 
lished in  Part  I  of  the  Third  YEARBOOK,  which  will  be  published  for 
discussion  at  the  Atlanta  meeting  in  February,  1904. 

The  present  papers  are  chiefly  devoted  to  the  discussion  of  the 
Normal  School  Problem.  Those  of  the  following  YEARBOOK  will  treat 
the  subject  from  the  standpoint  of  the  University. 



The  Relation  between  Theory  and  Practice  in  the  Training  of  Teachers. 
A  paper  prepared  by  the  Faculty  of  the  State  Normal  University, 
Normal,  111.;  David  Felmley,  Miss  Elizabeth  Mavity,  and  Manfred 
J.  Holmes,  Committee  -  -  9 

Paper  by  Levi  Seeley,  State  Normal  School,  Trenton,  N.  J.    -  -     39 

"General  Plan  for  the  Study  of  the  Relation  of  Theory  to  Practice,"  by 

John  A.  Keith,  Northern  Illinois  State  Normal  School,  DeKalb,  111.     58 

Minutes  of  the  last  Meeting  at  Cincinnati,  February  25,  1903  -     60 

List  of  Active  Members         -         -         -         -         -        ..         .         -61 




The  specific  problem  under  discussion. —  Ever  since  normal  schools 
were  called  into  existence  they  have  had  the  benefit  of  adverse  criti- 
cism. The  most  helpful  criticisms  have  always  come  from  the  really 
able  and  earnest  men  in  the  public  schools  and  the  field  of  higher 
education,  and  from  the  progressive  men  in  normal-school  work. 

In  a  recent  address  before  the  National  Educational  Association, 
President  Butler  of  Columbia  University  said : 

Two  generations  ago  it  became  patent  to  the  people  of  this  country  that 
mere  scholarship  was  not  a  sufficient  preparation  for  teaching,  and  schools 
came  into  existence  whose  object  it  was  to  prepare  teachers  by  a  study  of 
method.  That  was  a  desirable,  indeed  a  necessary,  reform,  if  the  schools 
were  to  increase  in  efficiency  beyond  the  point  they  had  then  reached.  But 
I  am  clear  that  that  movement  has  now  gone  too  far,  and  that  teachers  of 
method  have  now  become  enamored  of  method  for  method's  sake.  They 
have  forgotten  that  method  is  a  means  and  not  an  end,  and  their  fine-spun 
analysis  and  long-continued  preparation  is  like  placing  a  great,  huge  vestibule 
before  a  very  small  and  insignificant  house.  It  makes  education  wasteful  in 
a  very  high  degree. 

Perhaps  this  is  the  most  general,  as  well  as  the  most  serious,  of  all 
the  charges  brought  against  the  normal  school.  It  is  said  to  be  "top- 
heavy"  in  theory:  that  its  courses  present  a  great  body  of  theory  which 
does  not  find  concrete  embodiment  in  the  normal  school  itself  nor  in 
the  actual  school  work  of  normal  teachers ;  it  wastes  its  energies  in 
striking  the  air. 

That  such  charges  have  usually  been  exaggerations  there  is  no 
question,  but  there  has  always  been  enough  truth  in  them  to  keep  the 
schools  examining  the  reasons  for  their  existence  and,  in  the  light  of 
clearer  understanding,  readjusting  themselves  to  render  a  maximum 
of  substantial  service.  Each  individual  normal  school  has  been  tak- 
ing form  under  the  pressure  of  its  own  local  environment;  hence, 

1  Committee  making  the  report:  President  David  Felmley,  Professor  Manfred  J. 
Holmes,  Miss  Elizabeth  Mavity. 



many  local  varieties  have  been  produced.  Today  there  is  not  one, 
probably,  certainly  not  one  of  the  better  schools,  that  is  satisfied  with 
itself;  and  it  is  believed  that  comparison  and  discussion,  and  a  frequent 
measuring  of  the  normal  school  as  it  actually  is  with  what  it  ought  to 
be  will  help  to  promote  right  development  and  efficiency. 

A  specific  form  of  the  above  criticism  is  that  the  theories  and 
methods  taught  by  the  various  departments  are  not  put  into  practice  by 
the  student  when  he  teaches  in  the  training  school.  It  has  been  thought 
that  the  general  criticism  can  be  met  by  answering  this  specific  form 
of  it.  If  the  normal-school  instructor  holds  himself  responsible  for 
understanding  just  what  is  needed,  and  what  is  practicable,  in  the 
public  schools ;  if  he  remembers  that  his  department  exists  only  for 
the  purpose  of  contributing  to  his  student's  power,  resources,  and  skill 
in  teaching  in  those  schools ;  and  if  the  student's  teaching  in  the  train- 
ing school  measures  the  value  and  tests  the  practicability  of  the 
instructor's  work,  and  is  its  final  stage — then  he  will  abandon  unpracti- 
cal theory  and  be  anxious  to  supervise  this  final  stage  of  his  own 
work  under  conditions  over  which  he  himself  has  at  least  co-operative 
control.  Guided  by  this  thought,  more  and  more  normal  schools  have 
been  getting  their  training  schools  and  normal  departments  organized 
into  closer  working  unity. 

Purpose  and  scope  of  this  paper. —  This  paper  is  a  report  rather  than 
a  discussion,  and  is  submitted  to  the  Society  for  the  Scientific  Study 
of  Education  in  response  to  the  invitation  to  the  Society's  executive 
committee,  with  the  hope  that  it  will  receive  the  critical  study  of  really 
serious  students  of  education,  and  thereby,  through  discussion  and 
comparison,  promote  improvement  in  this  decidedly  unsettled  prob- 
lem of  educational  work.  The  report  aims  to  show  the  relation 
between  theory  and  practice  in  the  training  of  teachers  as  that  relation 
exists  in  the  normal  school.  It  does  not  assume  to  speak  for  all  nor- 
mal schools;  but  simply  tries  to  show  how  one  school  is  trying  to 
solve  the  problem  of  the  relation  between  theory  and  practice  by  bring- 
ing about  a  close  and  effective  unity  between  the  instruction  in  the 
normal  classes  and  the  work  in  the  training  school. 

The  report  is  organized  under  the  following  topics : 
I.  The  function  of  the  normal  school. 
II.  The  organization  as  determined  by  its  function. 

1.  The  course  of  study. 

2.  The  equipment. 


3.  The  faculty. 

4.  The  working  program. 

III.  The  work  of  the   normal  department  as  related  to  the  training 

1.  General  pedagogy. 

2.  Special  departments,  illustrated  by 
a)  Literature. 

d)  Geography. 

IV.  The  training  school. 
V.  Limitations. 


Rational  origin  of  the  normal  school. — Whatever  calls  a  thing  into 
existence  is  the  key  to  an  understanding  of  its  purpose.  It  has  always 
been  recognized  that  the  rulers  of  a  state  should  be  educated ;  there- 
fore, in  a  self-governing  society  all  the  people  should  be  educated. 
We  are  also  familiar  with  the  dictum  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the  state  to 
educate  its  citizens.  This  duty  carries  with  it  the  necessity  of  estab- 
lishing schools  and  supplying  the  teachers.  Everybody  in  this  day 
accepts  the  proposition  that  teachers  must  be  specially  educated  and 
trained  to  do  their  important  and  difficult  work.  Hence  the  American 
normal  school  has  been  called  into  existence  to  do  this  special  service 
— to  contribute  to  the  realization  of  the  American  ideal  of  what  it  is  to 

Its  technical  function  in  "training"  teachers. — "The  purpose  of  the 
normal  school  is  to  fit  its  students  fdr  teaching  children.  It  is  a  tech- 
nical school  in  which  knowledge  is  held  of  value  as  it  ministers  to  an 
art.  What  anatomy  is  to  the  surgeon  or  mathematics  to  the  engineer, 
the  various  branches  of  study  are  to  the  teacher.  In  a  sense  they  are 
the  instruments  of  his  art.  No  teacher  can  really  be  at  home  in  his 
profession  until  he  feels  that  the  value  of  every  subject,  topic,  or  ques- 
tion is  to  be  found  in  its  influence  in  the  development  of  the  child ; 
that  lessons  are  to  be  judged,  not  in  their  individual  nature,  but  in 
their  final  outcome.  In  the  normal  school  the  various  branches  of 
study  are  to  be  organized  in  the  consciousness  of  the  student,  not  so 
much  with  regard  to  their  inner  logical  relations  as  with  regard  to  the 
interests  and  aptitudes  of  children.  The  question  is  not  merely,  What 
is  this  body  of  thought  we  call  geography?  for  example ;  nor  yet,  What 
portions  are  of  most  practical  worth  ?  but,  How  shall  the  child  proceed 


in  acquiring  this  knowledge  ?  What  is  the  value  of  these  experiences 
in  his  unfolding  life?  Normal-school  instructors  should  feel  that 
their  departments  exist  only  that  teachers  may  be  prepared  for  their 

Its  cultural  function  in  the  education  of  teachers. — While  the  above  is 
universally  accepted  as  true  and  marks  off  the  normal  school  in  its  dis- 
tinctive character,  yet  every  thoughtful  person  knows  that  strictly  scien- 
tific training  is  only  a  part  of  what  makes  a  teacher.  Personal  quality 
and  social  worth,  all  those  finer  elements  that  go  to  make  up  the  better 
type  of  manhood  and  womanhood  —  these  are  absolutely  indispensable 
in  the  make-up  of  a  teacher.  Therefore  the  general  culture  studies — 
all  those  that  give  a  broader  and  more  accurate  view  of  the  world  and 
enlarge  the  sympathies  —  are  justifiable  in  the  normal-school  course  in 
so  far  as  they  help  to  make  the  student  a  more  efficient  teacher.  We 
must  still  keep  in  mind  that,  while  the  subjects  are  acquired  as  the 
instruments  of  teaching,  they  must  serve  as  means  for  the  education 
and  cultivation  of  the  would-be  teacher  himself.  The  normal  student 
needs  the  educative  influence  of  natural  science,  history,  the  social 
sciences,  literature,  and  art,  and  to  live  as  much  as  possible  in  the 
atmosphere  of  these  phases  of  truth  and  life.  These  are  the  influences 
that  mature  the  natural  endowments  of  personality. 

Summary.  —  It  is  common  knowledge  that  the  highest  degree  of 
efficiency  in  any  work  can  be  attained  only  when  the  workman  has  a 
clear  notion  of  the  purpose  of  his  work,  the  nature  of  the  means  or 
instruments  he  must  use,  the  nature  of  whatever  he  is  to  transform  or 
change,  and  the  nature  and  mode  of  the  process  by  which  the  trans- 
formation is  to  take  place.  Such  preparation  for  the  work  of  teaching 
is  the  distinctive  function  of  the  normal  school;  but  along  with  its 
work  of  technical  training  it  must  carry,  in  as  high  a  degree  as  possible, 
those  influences  that  make  for  liberal  scholarship  and  general  cultivation. 


General  principles. — The  law  of  adaptation  of  structure  to  function 
in  a  given  environment  is  universal  in  organic  life.  It  is  equally  valid 
in  social  and  institutional  evolution ;  but  the  fitness  of  an  institution 
to  survive  is  measured,  not  by  its  capacity  for  self-preservation,  but  by 
the  extent  to  which  it  renders  the  service  for  which  it  was  created. 
This  should  be  kept  in  mind  when  examining  the  working  organization 


of  any  normal  school ;  and  there  need  be  no  surprise  to  find  legitimate 
and  necessary  variety  according  to  the  local  environment  in  which  the 
school  must  render  its  expected  service  and  thereby  justify  its  existence. 
The  normal  school  must  be  organized  to  face  in  two  directions  :  first, 
it  must  keep  before  it  actual  conditions  and  needs  in  order  to  render 
immediate  and  substantial  service;  second,  it  must  not  take  for  its 
standard  the  current  conditions  and  merely  try  to  prepare  teachers 
that  will  fit  into  the  present  order,  but  it  should  encourage  and  press 
forward  advanced  standards  and  ideals  in  every  line  and  aspect  of 
educational  work,  inspiring  its  students  with  zeal  and  initiative  impulse 
to  realize  such  ideals. 

Course  of  study  in  the  normal  school. — There  are  provided  : 

1.  Courses  in  general  pedagogy. 

2.  Courses  in  special  method  of  the  various  branches  taught  in 
primary  and  secondary  schools,  including  art,  singing,  and  manual 

3.  Additional  courses  providing  for  teachers  means  of  liberal  cul- 
ture in  physical  and  biological  sciences,  literature,  history,  art,  music, 
economics,  and  other  social  sciences. 

4.  A  course  of  training  in  practical  teaching  under  close  supervi- 
sion of  critic-teachers. 

As  in  most  western  normal  schools,  provision  is  made  for  at  least 
three  grades  of  students. 

a)  For  graduates  of  the  best  city  high  schools  is  provided  a  cur- 
riculum, partly  required  and  partly  elective,  extending  over  two  years. 

b)  For  graduates  of  village  high  schools,  teachers  of  maturity  and 
experience,  and  others  of  equivalent  preparation,  is  provided  a  cur- 
riculum three  years  in  length. 

c)  For  students  having  little  high-school  preparation,  including 
especially  graduates  of  the  state  course  of  study  provided  for  rural 
schools,  is  arranged  a  four-year  curriculum. 

These  curricula  contain  the  same  required  courses  in  general  peda- 
gogy and  the  same  amount  of  practice  teaching.  They  differ  in  the 
attention  given  to  the  academic  phases  of  the  work  in  special  method 
and  the  number  of  possible  elective  courses  providing  general  culture. 

Equipment. —  Since  the  normal  school  is  largely  to  determine  the 
standards  of  excellence  that  will  be  carried  by  its  graduates  into  the 
public  schools,  it  is  of  the  highest  importance  that  in  all  matters  of 
material  equipment  it  keep  pace  with  the  current  progress  in  educa- 


tional  appliances.  Its  library  should  be  well  stocked,  and  contain 
practically  everything  in  the  way  of  books  and  pictures  that  can  be  of 
material  value  to  the  teacher.  There  should  be  an  ample  stock  of 
maps,  charts,  and  every  other  species  of  apparatus  that  is  of  real  value. 
No  small  part  of  the  furnishing  of  the  teacher  is  an  acquaintance  with 
all  available  aids  in  instruction  supplemented  by  skill  in  using  them. 
The  normal  school  itself  as  a  whole  and  in  detail  should  be  a  demon- 
stration of  the  ideals  it  stands  for,  of  every  doctrine  it  advocates.  If 
a  certain  principle  or  any  other  aspect  of  method,  a  course  of  study  or 
any  equipment,  is  advocated  in  science,  history,  literature,  general 
pedagogy — by  any  department  or  any  teacher — there  should  be 
means  and  opportunity  to  observe  and  study  this  in  course  of  objective 
demonstration.  Therefore  a  well-equipped  training  school  is  neces- 
sary which  should  first  of  all  be  a  demonstration  of  the  science  and  art 
of  education  under  actual  conditions  of  public-school  work.  The 
training  school  here  consists  of  a  kindergarten,  of  eight  grades  of  the 
Normal  public  schools,  and  six  classes  in  the  high  school.  The  teach- 
ing corps  for  this  department  is  made  up  of  the  kindergartner,  one 
regular  critic-teacher  for  each  of  the  eight  grades,  a  supervisor  of  train- 
ing, and  the  city  superintendent,  who  has  complete  charge  of  the  pro- 
motions and  general  charge  of  the  discipline  of  the  school  and  of  all 
relations  between  the  normal  school  and  the  local  school  board  and 
the  parents  of  the  community. 

For  all  students  there  are  three  terms  of  teaching  in  the  training 
school.  This  teaching  is  put  late  in  the  course,  in  order  to  secure 
the  maximum  in  scholarship  and  theory.  The  preliminary  prepara- 
tion for  teaching  in  the  training  school  has  two  aspects.  It  consists, 
first,  of  knowledge  and  special  method  of  the  studies  taught  in  the 
public  schools ;  second,  of  at  least  the  first  two  terms  in  general  peda- 

The  faculty. — No  matter  how  excellent  the  course  of  study  may  be 

nor  how  perfect  the  equipment,  the  success  of  a  school  will  always 
depend  upon  its  faculty.  It  is  a  question  whether  anyone  can  become 
a  really  successful  normal  teacher  unless  he  has  taught  children.  In 
all  his  instruction  there  must  be  in  the  background  of  his  conscious- 
ness this  knowledge  of  actual  school  conditions ;  he  must  know  the 
practicable  and  possible  in  the  schools  of  this  generation.  Teachers 
of  the  normal  school  must  be  men  of  ideals,  who  with  prophetic  vision 
behold  what  ought  to  be  and  is  to  be  in  education.  At  the  same  time 


they  must  know  that  heaven  is  not  gained  at  a  single  bound.  With  a 
clear  comprehension  of  present  conditions  and  tendencies,  they  can 
intelligently  direct  the  line  of  advance. 

The  working  program. — The  working  program  aims  to  bring  about 
such  a  working  unity  between  the  normal  department  and  the  training 
school  as  will  make  the  whole  normal-school  process  one,  logically 
and  psychologically,  and  not  two  isolated  lines  of  work — instruction 
and  theory  on  the  one  hand,  practice  on  the  other.  Since  the  normal- 
school  instructor  regards  the  students'  work  in  the  training  school  as 
the  final  stage  of  his  own  work,  we  shall  find  him  at  work  in  at  least 
two  places — in  his  class-room  and  in  the  training  school.  In  the 
class-room  he  is  helping  his  students  to  acquire  knowledge,  ideas  of 
method,  principles  and  aims  of  education,  habits  of  thought,  and  ele- 
ments of  character — all  of  which  constitute  a  progressive  preparation 
for  teaching.  In  the  training  school  he  co-operates  with  the  critic 
force  in  the  supervision  and  criticism  of  the  student-teachers,  and  care- 
fully watches  the  working  and  effects  of  the  course  of  study  and  sug- 
gests needed  improvements  in  both  selection  and  organization.  We 
also  find  him  in  individual  and  collective  conferences  with  the  critic- 
teachers.  This  last  aspect  of  his  work  is  exceedingly  important;  for 
the  economy  and  success  of  much  of  the  work  of  both  critic-teacher 
and  head  of  department  depend  upon  clear  mutual  understanding  and 
close  co-operation. 

Certain  essential  requirements  are  imposed  upon  the  working  pro- 
gram:  (i)  Every  part  of  it  should  be  made  to  subserve  the  normal- 
school  purpose  as  a  whole.  (2)  It  must  recognize  the  legitimate  and 
necessary  part  that  each  department  and  study  should  contribute  to  the 
work  as  a  whole,  and  provide  the  needed  opportunity.  For  example, 
the  normal-school  instructor  should  be  free  to  visit  the  training  school 
during  the  hour  in  which  classes  are  reciting  in  his  subjects.  (3)  As 
far  as  possible  it  should  secure  logical  and  psychological  arrangement 
and  sequence ;  for  example,  it  should  arrange  to  give  instruction  in 
subject-matter  and  theory  of  teaching  a  subject  before  the  student  is 
called  upon  to  teach  that  subject  in  the  training  school ;  also,  as  much 
as  possible  of  the  general  pedagogy  should  precede  the  teaching.  Yet 
part  of  the  theoretical  work  should  be  in  progress  while  or  after  the 
student  does  his  practice  teaching;  for  just  as  his  early  pedagogy  work 
helps  to  make  possible  his  practice  teaching,  so  in  turn  does  that  teach- 
ing illuminate  any  further  study  that  he  makes  of  method.  (4)  It 


should  bring  all  the  parts  and  forces  of  the  school  into  harmonious 
unity,  free  from  mechanical  conflict  or  hindrance.  There  should  be 
the  much-needed  opportunity  for  conferences  between  the  heads  of 
departments  and  students  and  critics.  The  critic  must  know  the 
point  of  view  of  the  department  with  regard  to  subject-matter  and 
with  regard  to  method.  The  work  of  the  practice  school  exemplifies 
the  theory  of  the  other  departments.  This  can  be  achieved  only  so  far 
as  the  critics  know  what  goes  on  elsewhere.  The  normal-school 
instructor  should  also  have  time  to  do  some  teaching  in  the  training 
school.  It  is  a  place  for  trial  of  method  as  well  as  for  other  purposes 
we  have  named.  The  theorist  finds  there  whether  his  ideas  will  work. 
The  heads  of  departments  in  consultation  with  the  critics  make  the 
course  of  study  for  the  training  school.  By  visitation  and  conference 
they  become  thoroughly  familiar  with  the  practical  working  of  the 
course.  This  reacts  upon  their  teaching  in  their  own  classes.  But  for 
the  best  results  in  certainty  of  method  the  teachers  of  theory  ought  really 
to  teach  children.  Opportunities  for  such  teaching  have  not  been 
frequent.  When  one  of  them  has  taught  he  has  expressed  this  as 
a  result :  the  teaching  serves  the  threefold  purpose  of  satisfying  his 
mind  as  to  the  adaptability  of  his  course  to  children,  of  giving  him 
first-hand  knowledge  of  the  teaching  of  children,  about  which  he  is  all 
the  time  theorizing  in  his  normal  classes,  and  of  acquainting  the  critic 
with  what  she  may  expect  in  preparation  of  the  student-teachers  who 
come  from  his  classes  to  work  in  her  room.  The  same  result  of  greater 
certainty  of  method  on  the  part  of  both  the  head  of  a  department  and  a 
critic  is  furthered  by  the  attendance  of  the  head  of  a  department  upon 
the  illustrative  model  lessons,  or  "critiques,"  in  his  subject,  and  the 
occasional  teaching  of  a  class  of  children  in  such  lessons — this  entirely 
in  addition  to  the  teaching  above  mentioned.  (5)  It  is  not  enough  for 
the  program  merely  to  furnish  the  opportunity  for  these  things.  They 
must  be  looked  upon  just  as  a  class-room  recitation  is  looked  upon, 
as  duties,  and  the  normal  instructor  will  meet  these  duties  with 
the  same  regularity  and  in  the  same  spirit  that  he  meets  his  class-room 


In  accordance  with  the  foregoing  principles  and  plan  of  organiza- 
tion, the  normal  instructor  conceives  his  work  as  comprising  the 
following  results  in  the  students : 


1.  Knowledge  of  the  subject  in  itself  and  in  relation  to  the  devel- 
opment of  child-mind.     The  knowledge  of  the  subject-matter  itself 
must  comprise  a  full  and  accurate  knowledge  of  its  facts  in  their  logi- 
cal relation  and  of   the   principles  of   organization   of  the  subject- 
matter;  "a  philosophic  view  of  the    subject  as   a  whole  and  of  its 
parts,  involving  the  logical  order  and  development  of  the  subject  as 
well  as  the  significance  or  content  of  the  same  and  of  its  parts." 
Such  scholarship  is  essential  as  a  prerequisite  for  the  student's  work  in 
the  training  school.    Lack  of  it,  from  whatever  cause,  will  make  lesson 
planning  feeble,  questioning  poor,  manner  hesitating.     It  involves  a 
manifest  unfairness  to  the  student-teacher,  to  his  class,  to  the  training 
department,  and  to  the  department  in  whose  line  he  is  teaching ;  to 
the  student,  because  to  teach  a  class  at  all  with  inadequate  scholarship 
he  must  overwork  and  yet  cannot  reach  appropriate  results   in  knowl- 
edge of  and  power  of  handling  the  teaching  problem  ;  to  the  class, 
in  that  it  is  entitled  to  just  as  good  instruction  as  it  could  have  from 
a  regular  teacher ;  to  the  practice  department,  in  that  it  must  then 
shoulder  work  supposed  to  have  been  done  elsewhere  ;  and  to  the 
other  departments  concerned,  because   under   the   circumstances   its 
methods  cannot  be  exemplified  and  tested  by  the  student-teacher's 
work,  nor  can  its  ideas  through  him  make  an  impression  upon  the 
training  school. 

The  student-teacher  must  be  helped  also  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
educational  values  of  the  subject  —  of  what  it  is  good  for  in  the 
development  of  a  child's  mind  and  character. 

2.  Sufficient  practice  in  the  organization  of  subject-matter  to  offset 
the  fact  that,  owing  to  the  shortness  of  the  course  in  a  normal  school, 
it  is  inevitable  that  not  every  topic  which  the  training-school  course 
covers  will  have  been  treated   in   the  normal  classes.     For  example, 
there  may  have  been  in  the  normal  class  no  detailed  study  of  Africa, 
but  the  geography  of  North  America  will  have  been  so  treated  that 
knowledge  of  the  method  of  treating  a  continent  shall  be  the  result. 

3.  Knowledge   of  the  processes  and  principles  that  underlie  the 
learning  and  teaching  of  the  subject  and  of  what  determines  a  good 
course  in  the  subject  for  the  elementary  school. 

4.  Some  familiarity  with  the  way  this  work   is  actually  done  with 
and  by  children.     This  is  secured   partly  by  explanation,  but  largely 
by  illustrative  lessons  and  observation.     The  student  will  frequently 
be  taken  to  the  training   school  to  see  practical  illustrations  of  the 
theories  presented  to  him  in  the  normal  class-room.     The  teacher  of 


reading,  for  example,  works  out  with  her  class  an  order  of  topics  and 
appropriate  mode  of  treatment  for  them,  and  then,  with  her  class, 
watches  a  series  of  lessons  with  children,  illustrative  of  progressive 
stages  of  the  subject.  These  lessons  are  then  discussed  in  the  class- 
room and  serve  to  clarify  and  fix  the  method  in  reading  in  the  stu- 
dent's mind.  The  psychology  class  studies  the  laws  of  association, 
the  nature  of  attention,  the  process  of  forming  a  habit,  the  nature  of  a 
concept,  or  the  meaning  of  apperception  in  mental  growth ;  and  then 
goes  to  see  a  teacher  of  little  children  employing  devices  to  secure 
right  association,  leading  children  to  acquire  a  general  notion,  provid- 
ing deliberately  for  habit,  or  making  skilful  drafts  on  the  child's  past 
experience  preparatory  to  the  making  of  a  new  experience.  This 
helps  the  student  to  understand  the  truths  of  the  method  discussed  in 
the  normal  classes.  Here  the  training  school  lends  itself  directly  to 
the  service  of  the  teachers  of  theory. 

5.  Cultivation  and  discipline  ;  specifically,  certain  essential  traits 
of  mind,  habits  of  thought,  elements  of  character. 

6.  Power  to  put  the  fund  of  knowledge  given  by  the  teacher  of 
theory  into  use,  in  a  practical  adaptation  of  it  to  a  class  of  children. 
At  this  point  the  student  is  in  the  training  school  under  the  joint  super- 
vision of  a  regular  critic  and  of  the  head  of  a  department. 

Summary. — (i)  The  normal  instructor  must  have  a  definite  aim  — 
masses  of  knowledge,  methods  of  instruction,  intellectual  processes, 
emotional  states,  standards  of  conduct  and  citizenship,  habits  of 
thought  and  action  that  he  would  see  established  in  the  public  schools. 
(2)  To  realize  this  aim  he  must  develop  in  his  normal  students  a  due 
knowledge  of  subject-matter,  an  appreciation  of  educational  values, 
familiarity  with  principles  and  processes  of  teaching,  a  fitting  sense  of 
the  teacher's  responsibility,  and  such  attitude  toward  teaching  as  shall 
fill  their  days  with  interest  and  delight.  (3)  To  test  this  instruction 
he  must  follow  his  students  into  the  training  school ;  must  keep  in 
close  touch  with  its  activities,  both  by  inspection  and  by  direct  partici- 

The  points  of  relation  already  indicated  between  teachers  of  theory 
and  the  practice  department  will  appear  in  the  following  statements : 

1.  Of  the  departments  of  general  pedagogy  and  psychology,  phi- 
losophy of  education,  and  school  management. 

2.  Of  two  other  typical  departments  of  theory. 

3.  Of  the  training  school. 



The  first  term's  work  in  pedagogy  has  the  problem  of  opening  to 
the  student's  view  the  field  of  pedagogical  study.  He  has  engaged  in 
lessons  before  ;  he  has  (usually)  never  before  asked  himself  the  ques- 
tion, What  is  a  lesson  ?  He  is  asked  now  to  examine  his  ideas  of  the 
school  and  of  the  function  of  a  teacher,  and  to  discover,  from  remem- 
bered experiences  of  his  own  and  from  lessons  which  he  watches  in 
the  training  school,  the  character  of  the  double  process  that  goes  on 
in  a  lesson.  The  line  of  study  comprises : 

1.  The  organic  nature  of  the  school. 

a)  Its  aim  as  determined  by  the  nature  of  human  life. 

b)  The  elements   of  the  school :    their  general  nature  and  their 
relation  in  the  organism. 

2.  The  simpler  laws  of  the  psychology  of  the  teaching  process. 
That  phase  of  the  process  represented  by  the  teacher  is  elaborated 
through  discussion  and  illustrations  from  teaching.    From  this  discus- 
sion are  deduced  the  fundamental  truths  of  the  science  and  art  of  the 

The  sources  of  study  are  the  student's  own  experiences,  past  and 
present,  as  a  student ;  lessons  observed  in  the  training  school;  read- 
ings from  those  novels  of  Charles  Dickens  in  which  he  depicts  schools, 
and  from  other  exemplifications  of  school  work ;  and  readings  on 
theory  from  standard  texts  on  pedagogy  and  psychology. 

The  ideas  of  the  principles  studied  in  this  class  are  expected  to 
form  the  nucleus  of  the  general  pedagogy  and  psychology;  to  grow  into 
an  intelligent  and  comprehensive  knowledge  of  what  it  is  to  teach. 
Lesson  plans  are  made  and  discussed,  and  plans  used  at  the  time  by 
more  advanced  students  are  seen  and  studied.  The  work  reacts  upon 
the  student  in  three  ways  directly  pertinent  to  our  paper:  (i)  in  his 
practice  work  later  in  his  course ;  (2)  in  his  further  work  in  general 
method  and  in  psychology;  (3)  in  the  formation  of  a  consciousness  of 
intention  in  teaching  that  makes  the  student  a  more  intelligent  inter- 
preter of  whatever  is  done  by  his  teachers  in  any  department. 


General  method  covers  the  second  and  third  terms  of  the  five  terms 
in  general  pedagogy.  It  is  generally  supposed  that  this  is  one  of  the 
chief  fields  where  unpractical  "  theory"  grows  rankest.  For  this  rea- 
son it  seems  best  to  show  with  some  definiteness  of  detail  in  just  what 


respect  the  normal  school  seeks  to  equip  its  students  with  a  body  of 
knowledge  and  principles  of  method  in  education  and  teaching.  In  this 
statement  it  is  also  revealed  how  this  theoretical  instruction  is  followed 
up  until,  it  is  hoped,  a  good  part  of  it  becomes  second  nature  in  the 
mind  of  the  teacher  and  a  permanent  practical  guide  in  his  work.  But 
it  is  also  expected  that  this  work  will  make  a  valuable  contribution  to 
the  student's  view  of  the  world,  and  contribute  to  his  general  cultiva- 
tion as  does  any  other  study. 

The  field  and  scope  of  general  method. —  General  method  is  marked 
off  from  the  other  studies  of  the  normal-school  course  by  having  for 
its  distinctive  subject-matter  human  development.  Its  essential  unity 
with  the  other  studies  is  found  in  the  process  of  human  development 
by  which  the  individual  incorporates  into  his  own  life,  in  accordance 
with  its  own  laws  of  development,  the  truth  and  life  embodied  in  or 
represented  by  those  other  studies.  Attention  and  interest  are  cen- 
tered upon  the  conditions,  processes,  and  laws  of  the  child's  develop- 
ment from  infancy  to  maturity;  from  the  mere  possibilities  of  the 
higher  physical,  mental,  social,  and  moral  life  through  the  progressive 
stages  of  self-realization  along  these  characteristic  lines. 

Thus,  in  this  genetic  view  of  human  development,  general  method 
finds  the  body  of  concrete  fact  from  which  it  seeks  to  derive  principles 
of  the  science  and  art  of  education.  It  should  be  noted  that  general 
method  does  not  arrive  at  its  conclusions  by  logical  deduction  from 
general  assumptions ;  but,  instead,  it  mainly  follows  the  induct- 
ive thought-movement  of  discovery  for  its  conclusions.  There  are, 
however,  certain  general  assumptions  of  general  method,  the  chief 
of  which  are  (i)  that  the  human  being  is  educable;  (2)  that  human 
development  is  in  accordance  with  law ;  (3)  that  these  laws  form  the 
basis  of  the  science  of  education  and  a  guide  in  the  art  of  teaching ; 
(4)  that  a  knowledge  of  the  conditions,  processes,  and  laws  of  human 
development  is  indispensable  in  the  education  and  training  of  teach- 
ers; (5)  that  self-realization  along  the  higher  ideals  of  physical,  men- 
tal, social,  and  moral  life  is  the  true  aim  of  education — and  life. 

The  general  outline  of  subject-matter  is  as  follows: 

I.  The  aim  of  education  and  life. — A  progressive  self-realization 
along  the  characteristic  lines  of  human  development ;  results  measured 
at  any  time  by  degree  of  personal  and  social  worth  and  efficiency. 
This  conception  is  a  gradual  growth  whose  academic  maturity  is 
reached  in  the  philosophy  of  education. 


II.  What  the  child  starts  with.  —  (i)  Life  appetites,  impulses,  and 
possibilities;  (2)   a  body  organism,   through  which  consciousness  is 
aroused  and  impressed,  and  which  serves  as  the  instrument  of  the  vari- 
ous modes  of  activity  and  expression ;  (3)  instincts  and  other  latent 
ancestral  inheritances  that  appear  in  their  proper  order  and  time;  (4) 
environment,  social  and  physical,  in  which  he  must  find  or  make  his 
place  if  he  survives  in  accordance  with  the  prevailing  standards  that 
test  and  measure  life,  and  which  largely  calls  forth  and  determines  his 
individual  type. 

III.  Relation  of  the  body  organism  to  the  child's  whole  development. — 
(i)  The  nervous  system,  its  function,  physical  basis  of  habit,  memory, 
and  specialization  ;    (2)  growth  of  bodily  control  in  relation  to  mental 
development ;  from  fundamental  to  accessory;  (3)  the  law  of  fatigue 
and  recreation ;  (4)  the  law  of  habit  and  accommodation  ;  (5)  tempera- 
ment and  individuality;  (6)  comparative  and  periodic  physical  growth 
in  relation  to  mental  development;  (7)  care  of  body;  (8)  proper  physi- 
cal conditions  of  schoolroom. 

IV.  Stages   of  development. —  Infancy   and  early  childhood;    later 
childhood;  youth,  or  adolescence,     (i)  Physical,  mental,  social,  and 
moral  characteristics  of  each  stage ;  (2)  subject-matter  of  the  course 
of  study,  school  organization  and  method  of  instruction  as  determined 
by  the  needs  and  capabilities  of  pupil  in  these  several  stages  ;  (3)  the 
"culture-epoch    theory"    examined — parallelism    of   individual    and 
race  development. 

V.  The  psychologic    basis  of  the  learning  process:    Intellectual. — 
(i)  Some  universal  conditions  and  factors  in  the  learning  process, 
such    as   attention,  interest,  apperception,    curiosity,    imitation,  sug- 
gestion, the  law  of  impression  and  expression.     These   are  studied 
with  regard  to  their  nature  and  meaning  in  mental  development  and 
the  work  of  teaching.     (2)  What  the  senses  do;  the  necessity  of  sense- 
perception,  and  the  extent  to  which  the  course  of  study  and  lesson 
plans  should  provide  for  it.     (3)  Memory  and  association  of  ideas ; 
how  to  secure  efficient  memory.     (4)   Imagination ;  its  meaning   in 
education ;  necessity  and   modes  of  securing  vivid,  accurate  images ; 
how  the  course  of  study  provides  for  the  development  of  imagination 
from  the  child's  world  of  fancy  to  the  world  of  rational  order.     (5) 
Thinking — understanding  relations;  how  general  notions  are  acquired, 
showing  movement  from  individual  to  general,  and  from  general  to 
individual,  in  acquisition  of  knowledge,  including  the  meaning  of  com- 


parison,  generalization,  and  naming ;  judgment  as  a  universal  mode  of 
thinking  relations ;  reasoning,  including  the  nature  and  use  of  the  syl- 
logism. The  inductive-deductive,  and  the  analytic-synthetic,  thought- 
movements  in  learning.  Lessons  and  lesson -planning  to  illustrate 

The  study  of  the  intellectual  activities  of  the  learning  process  is 
accompanied  by  frequent  problems  for  observation  and  report.  This 
is  to  promote  a  sense  of  reality  of  the  psychologic  facts,  definiteness 
of  knowledge,  familiarity  with  children  as  they  are,  and  to  arouse 
interest  in  children. 

VI.  The  lesson  and  observation. — The  last  three  weeks  of  this  term 
are  concentrated  upon  the  study  of  what  constitutes  a  lesson  in  terms 
of  the  learner's  experience,  the  unit  of  subject-matter  involved,  and  the 
teacher's  work.     This  has  the  double  advantage  of  securing  a  concrete 
review  of  the  term's  work  and  making  the  student  somewhat  familiar 
with  actual  schoolroom  work  and  the  organization  of  lessons;  thus 
those  who  begin  teaching  the  next  term  will  be  the  better  prepared  for 
it.     This  study  of  the  lesson  consists  mostly  of  observation  of  illustra- 
tive lessons,  followed  by  discussion  in  the  light  of  the  standards  derived 
from  study  of  the  psychologic  basis  and  other  features  of  the  work  in 
general  method. 

The  above  topics  are  covered  by  the  first  term's  work.  The  second 
term  continues  the  study  of  the  conditions,  processes,  and  laws  of 
mental  development  as  follows : 

VII.  The  psychologic  basis  of  the  learning  process :    Feeling. — (i) 
The  general  function  of  feeling  in   development  —  it  makes  us  aware 
of  the  value  of  an  experience.     (2)  Feelings  graded  according  to  value 
and    order  of    development;    sensuous,  egoistic  emotions,    altruistic 
emotions ;  the  higher  sentiments.     (3)  The  egoistic  emotions  —  mainly 
arising  from  the  law  of  self-preservation ;  special  study  is  made  of  the 
causes,  significance,  and  mode  of  treatment  of  such  feelings  as  love  of 
activity,  feeling  of  power,  fear,  self-respect.     (4)  The  altruistic  emo- 
tions—  genesis  of  the  social  person;  justice,  good-will,  respect  and 
reverence,  sympathy.     (5)  The  higher  sentiments  —  the   intellectual, 
the  aesthetic,  and  the  ethical.     (6)  Propagation  of  right  feelings;  what 
can  the  course  of  study  do  ?     What  can  be  done  by  right  management 
and  government  ?     By  sanitation  and  decoration  ? 

VIII.  The  psychologic  basis  of  the  learning  process :    Volitional. — (i) 
Life  appetites,  impulses,  instincts,  native  interests,  the  dynamic  nature 


of  all  ideas ;  spontaneous  and  deliberative  action  ;  ideas  never  reach 
their  maximum  of  clearness  and  meaning  until  expressed.  (2)  Ele- 
ments of  a  volition,  a  rational  act;  (a)  knowledge  —  of  the  end  or  aim, 
of  the  means  to  the  end;  (b)  feeling  —  that  the  end  has  value,  belief 
in  the  attainability  of  the  end,  or  consciousness  of  power;  (c]  the 
moving  force  or  working  energy  that  brings  about  the  desired  end. 
(3)  Stages  in  the  development  of  a  volition ;  desire,  choice,  motive, 
realization  of  motive.  (4)  The  system  of  desires  and  ends  made  up  of 
all  the  particular  desires  and  ends  constitutes  the  goal  and  end  of  all 
education  and  life ;  this  end  is  self-realization.  (5)  Stages  or  levels  of 
self-realization;  physical  control,  prudential  control,  moral  control. 
(6)  The  psychology  of  character-building. 

IX.  Some  application  of  the  foregoing. —  As  in  case  of  the  first  term, 
the  second  term's  work  includes  problems  for  observation  and  report. 
Near  the  end  of  the  term  about  two  weeks  are  given  to  observation  of 
class  work  in  the  training  school.     This  is  mostly  a  study  of  the  learn- 
ing activity  as  an  act  of  volition.     A  definite  plan  is  followed,  the  chief 
features  of  which  are:     (i)  The  feeling  element  in  the  act  —  interest, 
motive,  feeling  of  value  in  the  end,  belief  in   attainability.     (2)  The 
intellectual  element — aim  or  ideal  in  mind  of  actor,  idea  of  means 
necessary  to  attain  the  end,  attention,  etc.     (3)  Was  the  act  efficient  or 
not  ?     Explain  in  terms  of  what  the  teacher  did  or  failed  to  do.     (4) 
Estimate  effects  of  lesson  in  terms  of  educational  value. 

X.  A  study  of  one  pupil. — When  practicable,  a  student-teacher  who 
has  had  general  method  makes  a  long  and  many-sided  study  of  one  of 
his  pupils.     This  reinforces  and  extends  the  work  in  general  method, 
but  it  has   a  far  greater  value.     It   brings    about   a   close    personal 
acquaintance  with,  and  knowledge  of,  his  pupil,  and  makes  for  habits 
and  interest  in  studying  children,  and   for  an  understanding  of  just 
what  sort  of  problem  a  pupil  is.     It  also  has  an  immediate  value  in 
instruction  and  government. 

XI.  An  intensive  study. —  Each  member  of  the  class  makes  one 
intensive  study  of  some  aspect  or  problem  of  method  or  psychology,  or 
reviews  some  excellent  book  on  the  subject. 

XII.  The  class-room  work  in  general  method  is  followed  up  in  the 
training  school  by  the  teacher,  with  the  hope  of  keeping  constantly 
informed  as  to  the  problems  and  difficulties  the  students  meet,  and  to 
hold  the  student  as  much  as  possible  to  the  standards  set  up  in  the 
class-room.     In  the  discussion  of  critique  lessons  the  teacher  has  an 
excellent  chance  to  observe  the  results  of  his  work  and  to  follow  it  up. 



In  this  course  is  made  a  brief  examination  of  different  educational 
theories,  and  of  the  methods  or  systems  based  upon  them.  The  end 
of  education  is  found  in  complete  living,  an  end  which  harmonizes 
the  Greek  ideal  of  individual  perfection  and  the  modern  view  that 
education  should  bring  man  into  possession  of  his  spiritual  inherit- 
ance. Since  education  can  only  develop  latent  powers,  a  universal 
factor  in  all  education  is  found  in  interest,  the  desire  of  self-expression 
or  self-realization  that  is  the  conscious  accompaniment  of  development. 
The  field  of  education  is  surveyed  in  the  light  of  this  principle ; 
the  course  of  study  examined,  and  rational  method  determined.  The 
place  of  oral  instruction  and  examinations,  proper  modes  of  ques- 
tioning, the  function  of  the  problem  in  fixing  attention  and  stimulat- 
ing effort,  become  clear.  Such  empirical  maxims  as  Herbert  Spencer's 
six  principles  are  explained  and  justified. 

It  is  not  claimed  that  this  attempt  to  harmonize  and  unify  educa- 
tional theory  is  entirely  adequate,  nor  that  in  practice  it  is  a  panacea 
for  every  ill.  The  deeper  law  gives  significance  to  the  educational 
principle,  and  guides  the  teacher. 


The  same  law  of  interest — that  the  desire  of  self-expression,  of 
self-realization,  is  the  fundamental  element  in  all  education  —  must 
determine  the  organization  and  management  of  schools.  The  insist- 
ent question  always  is  :  How  does  this  arrangement  or  practice  affect 
the  direct  interest  of  the  child  in  the  subjects  of  study  ?  Among  the 
topics  discussed  are :  the  qualities  of  the  good  superintendent  and  the 
services  he  should  render ;  the  duties  of  teachers  in  school  and  com- 
munity, and  the  qualifications  they  demand ;  school  programs,  clas- 
sification, and  promotions  ;  school  architecture,  sanitation,  and  decora- 
tion ;  the  various  school  incentives  and  the  sort  of  character  they  yield; 
modes  of  dealing  with  delinquent  pupils ;  the  incidental  moral  train- 
ing afforded  by  the  school  in  politeness,  order,  truthfulness,  industry, 
justice,  and  rational  self-control.  Some  time  is  given  to  a  study  of 
the  public-school  system  of  Illinois,  and  the  legal  rights  and  obliga- 
tions of  teachers. 

Much  of  this  course  does  not  bear  directly  upon  the  class  instruc- 
tion in  the  training  school ;  it  enables  the  teacher  better  to  realize  his 
position  in  a  great  system,  to  feel  his  responsibilities,  and  especially  to 


see  the  social  value  of  wise  school  discipline.  The  discussion  of  school 
sanitation  and  decoration,  together  with  the  somewhat  extended  course 
in  school  hygiene,  leads  to  a  lively  appreciation  of  the  conditions  of 
the  schoolroom,  and  to  prompt  action  wherever  the  physical  well- 
being  of  the  children  is  endangered. 


Each  member  of  the  faculty  has  prepared  a  statement  of  his  work 
in  its  relation  to  the  preparation  of  teachers,  setting  forth  especially 
the  relation  of  theory  to  practice  in  his  department.  Out  of  the  seven- 
teen reports  from  the  teachers  of  special  subjects  in  the  normal  depart- 
ment two  have  been  selected  as  fairly  typical. 


It  is  the  business  of  this  department  to  prepare  students  to  teach 
literature.  This  means  that  they  must  be  helped  to  form  a  concep- 
tion, first,  of  the  essential  nature  of  literature;  secondly,  of  what, 
owing  to  this  nature,  is  best  fitted  to  contribute  to  the  development  of 
the  individual;  and,  thirdly,  of  the  way  in  which  this  possible  contri- 
bution can  best  be  made  real. 

To  accomplish  the  first  end,  the  teacher  studies  with  her  classes  in 
one  way  or  another  as  many  pieces  of  literature  as  the  time  allowed 
in  the  course  permits.  To  give  acquaintance  with  as  wide  a  range  of 
literature  as  possible  different  types  are  chosen  for  this  study :  epic, 
lyric,  and  dramatic  poetry,  the  novel,  the  essay,  the  speech.  To  make 
the  acquaintance  a  lasting  friendship  —  intimate,  intelligent,  sympa- 
thetic, a  close  study  is  made  of  a  few  pieces,  such  as  Sohrab  and  Rus- 
turn,  Wordsworth's  best  lyrics  and  the  best  of  his  short  narrative  poems, 
two  books  of  Paradise  Lost,  Silas  Marner,  and  two  plays  of  Shakspere. 
The  power  gained  in  this  detailed  study  is  used  in  more  rapid  study 
of  books  outside  of  class  —  novels,  essays,  plays,  speeches — followed 
by  critical  class  discussion.  In  classes  made  up  of  the  best-prepared 
students  less  time  is  allowed,  the  number  of  pieces  studied  is  cut  down, 
and  the  study  follows  somewhat  different  methods. 

The  second  and  third  ends  also  must  be  reached  in  the  several 
classes  by  different  methods,  determined  by  the  previous  preparation 
of  students  and  by  the  time  granted.  In  longer  courses  these  ends 
are  both  sought  in  the  actual  study  of  literature.  What  literature  can 
supply  to  the  education  of  the  individual  is  seen  more  and  more  clearly 


as  the  real  nature  of  literature  becomes  clear.  Effort  is  constantly 
made  to  distinguish  between  the  essential  and  the  non-essential  — 
between  the  study  of  literature  and  the  encyclopaedic  study  of  things 
mentioned  in  literature,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  study  of  literature 
itself  as  an  artistic  embodiment  of  human  life,  on  the  other.  Effort 
is  made  to  place  these  things  in  a  true  perspective,  and  by  so  doing  to 
help  the  student  begin  his  work  as  teacher  with  a  clear  sense  of  their 
relative  value. 

In  furtherance  of  the  third  end — to  give  a  clearer  conception  of 
intelligent  method  in  teaching  literature  —  the  attention  of  the  students 
is  called  to  the  method  actually  employed  in  handling  different  types 
of  literature  with  them  ;  reasons  for  its  use  are  sought  in  the  nature 
of  the  literature  and  the  character,  ability,  and  needs  of  the  class  ; 
and  modifications  of  it  are  considered  that  would  be  made  necessary 
by  changes  in  the  age,  character,  and  needs  of  pupils  in  the  various 
grades.  In  short,  a  constant  effort  is  made  to  make  the  students  of 
the  class  intelligent  critics  and  students  of  method. 

In  the  shorter  course  most  of  the  academic  work,  while  greatly 
needed,  has  to  be  dispensed  with,  and  the  time  of  the  class  given  to  a 
more  exclusively  professional  study.  Even  here  aims  and  methods 
are  studied  through  a  study  of  literature  itself,  but  the  work  is  more 
rapid  and  involves  many  more  written  discussions  of  poems,  chapters, 
and  plays,  with  direct  reference  to  the  preparation  of  the  teacher. 

So  far  as  the  exigencies  of  the  working  program  permit,  the 
department  follows  the  student-teacher  in  his  work  in  the  training 
school.  The  special  material  to  be  used  is  discussed,  the  special 
needs  of  the  class  are  considered,  and  the  best  means  of  handling  the 
given  material  to  supply  these  needs.  Sometimes  this  assistance  is 
given  through  direct  conference  with  the  student-teacher,  sometimes 
through  conference  with  the  critic.  Where  the  program  most  permits 
such  supervision  and  co-operation,  the  results  have  been  the  most 
satisfactory.  The  actual  test  of  the  work  in  the  training  department 
keeps  a  check  upon  the  theory  of  the  literature  department,  and 
enables  that  department  to  form  a  more  just  conception  of  the  possi- 
bilities and  limitations  of  work  in  the  grades.  The  student-teachers 
who  have  had  the  work  in  the  department  are  in  the  main  found  to  be 
making  intelligent  effort  to  make  their  work  vital  in  the  lives  of  their 
pupils.  Failures  of  course  occur,  some  of  them  due  to  the  necessarily 
inadequate  preparation  which  we  can  give  in  one  very  limited  course, 


together  with  the  lack  of  general  reading ;  others  of  them  due  to  gen- 
eral un fitness  of  the  student-teacher,  owing  to  lack  of  native  ability  or 
to  immaturity  and  lack  of  life-experience. 


I.  In  the  courses  in  the  normal  school. —  The  aim  :     The  student 
gains  in  the  department  of  pedagogy  a  knowledge  of  intellectual  pro- 
cesses, and  of  the  child's  mental  and  spiritual  development.     He  must 
acquire  in  this  department  a  knowledge  of  geography  as  a  science, 
the  habit  of  detecting  principles  of  geographic  control  beneath  masses 
of  miscellaneous  facts,  and  an  understanding  of  the  mental  processes 
involved  in  acquiring  this  kind  of  knowledge.     In  other  words,  he 
must  learn  the  content  of  geography,  its  peculiar  point  of  view,  and 
its  value  as  an  information  and  as  a  disciplinary  study.     He  should 
also  learn  to  regard  the  geography  course  in  the  grades  as  a  continu- 
ous whole,  each  term's  work  being  based  on  that  of  the  term  before  and 
preparing  the  way  for  that  of  the  term  following,  to  see  the  changing 
point  of  attack  as  the  interests  of  the  pupils  change,  and  to  under- 
stand the  increasing  complexity  of  problems  as  the  work  advances. 
He  should,  furthermore,  become  familiar  with  as  many  geographical 
aids  as  possible. 

Class  instruction  :  The  average  student  comes  to  us  with  statistical 
knowledge  of  geography  only,  and  very  little  of  that.  Therefore  the 
heart  of  the  courses  must  be  made  geography  itself,  and  not  something 
about  geography.  The  topics  taught  are  so  selected  that  by  the  end 
of  his  course  the  student  has  studied  all  the  larger  classes  of  geographic 
facts  and  principles,  and  has  in  several  instances  touched  on  some  of 
minor  importance,  but  of  no  less  interest.  Through  his  own  study  he 
becomes  familiar  with  the  use  of  maps,  pictures,  models,  diagrams,  and 
other  aids.  The  more  purely  professional  method  of  teaching  nowhere 
receives  formal  treatment,  but  every  phase  of  this  subject,  as  men- 
tioned above,  is  planned  for  and  brought  up  in  connection  with  the 
several  concrete  studies  which  best  illustrate  the  method  in  process  of 

The  result  seems  to  leave  the  student  with  the  idea  of  doing  more 
exhaustive  work  in  the  grades  than  is  desirable.  This  difficulty  may 
be  met  in  some  measure  by  careful  study  of  the  interests  of  children. 

II.  In  the  training  school. — The  practice  :     Criticism,  in  so  far  as  is 
possible,  should  be  constructive  rather  than  destructive.     Faults  may 


become  accentuated  by  too  much  watching.  The  head  of  the  depart- 
ment should  endeavor  to  see  that  the  spirit  of  the  work  is  that  of  real 
geography;  that  the  work  of  successive  terms  is  unified;  that  the 
important  details  are  chosen  to  make  clear  the  important  principles ; 
that  the  presentation  is  effective ;  that  the  work  progresses  and  hangs 
together ;  in  other  words,  that  geography  is  taught  in  a  way  adapted 
to  children.  The  technique,  strictly  speaking,  does  not  belong  to  the 
department's  sphere  of  influence. 

Student-teachers  generally  lack  originality  and  independence  in 
use  of  devices  and  in  planning.  To  meet  this  it  is  best  never  to 
suggest  just  one  device  or  one  plan  of  approaching  a  subject,  but,  by 
suggesting  briefly  several,  to  force  the  students  to  choose  and  to  work 
out  their  own  details. 

They  choose  details  because  they  "  have  found  them  "  somewhere. 
In  such  a  case  the  criticism  usually  is  a  question  in  regard  to  the  choice 
of  details  in  the  lesson  seen,  followed  by  one  in  regard  to  details  to 
be  chosen  for  the  next  topic  to  be  taught.  The  effort  is  thus  to  keep 
the  student  from  repeating  an  error,  and  also  to  make  concrete  the 
general  criticism. 

These  difficulties  in  the  student  are  met  with : 

1.  Lack  of  interest  in  his  subject-matter. 

2.  Attention  to  the  "externals"  of  his  work  rather  than  the  heart 
of  it. 

3.  Tendency  to  do  high-school  work  in  the  grades. 

4.  Tendency  to  teach  geography  rather  than  teach  children. 

5.  Tendency  to  give  scraps  rather  than  wholes  in  the  work. 
Some  of  these  troubles  may  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  student 

gets  many  criticisms  based  upon  scraps  of  his  work.  The  critic  should 
plan  to  visit  the  same  class  for  a  week  in  succession.  Perhaps  also  the 
student  gets  too  much  criticism  and  thereby  loses  his  independence. 
The  first  and  second  difficulties  point  back  to  deficiencies  in  his  work 
in  the  normal  school.  Perhaps  the  second  is  also  in  part  due  to  the 
undue  amount  of  emphasis  put  on  irrelevant  details  by  his  critics. 


The  training  school,  as  one  of  the  departments  of  the  normal 
school,  has  a  function  in  the  equipment  of  the  student  with  usable 
theory.  It  is  its  province  to  provide  observation  material,  illustrative 
of  work  in  theory,  and  also  to  provide  opportunity  for  the  student  to 


grow  in  knowledge  and  appreciation  of  the  purposes  of  education,  of 
the  subjects  of  study  used  as  instruments  of  education,  of  the  nature 
and  laws  of  mental  processes,  and  of  the  science  and  art  of  education. 
It  is  at  the  same  time  the  province  of  the  department  to  give  oppor- 
tunity for  the  direct  acquaintance  with  schoolroom  problems  that  shall 
make  possible  the  growth  of  the  student  in  tact,  in  judgment,  in 
sympathetic  understanding  of  children,  in  sense  of  the  teacher's 
responsibility,  and  in  all  other  personal  qualities  that  make  for  success 
in  teaching. 

As  to  the  direct  connection  of  the  pupil-teacher  with  the  training 
school  in  what  is  called  practice  teaching,  there  are  four  lines  of  work  : 

1.  Planning  of  lessons  in  series  by  teacher. 

2.  Execution  of  lessons  and  management  of  classes  by  teacher. 

3.  Observation  and  discussion  of  lessons  given  by  critics. 

4.  Conference  with  critics,  including  : 

a)  Weekly  teachers'  meetings. 

b)  Discussion  of  the  teacher's  plans. 

c)  Criticism  of  his  lessons. 

It  is  expected  to  make  the  three  terms'  practice  work  so  contribute 
to  the  growth  of  the  student  that  he  shall  leave  the  institution  possessed 
of  the  knowledge,  the  analytic  power,  the  tact,  and  the  initiative  that 
shall  insure  at  least  a  reasonable  degree  of  success  and  the  habit  of 
growth  that  means  progress.  When  he  enters  upon  his  training-school 
work  he  is  required  to  take  daily  charge  of  a  class  for  a  term,  to 
instruct  and  train  that  class  by  using  as  exercise  ground  a  specified 
portion  of  a  course  of  study,  to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity 
thus  afforded  for  extension  of  his  pedagogical  knowledge,  and  gradu- 
ally to  show  under  criticism  the  power  to  recognize  and  correct  his 
faults  as  a  teacher. 

What  shall  we  expect  from  his  preceding  work  as  preparation  for 
the  new  duties  and  opportunities  ?  He  must  have  a  fair  knowledge  of 
the  subject  to  be  taught  in  itself  and  in  its  values.  He  cannot  in 
three  terms  acquire  more  than  a  fair  degree  of  skill  in  meeting  the 
problems  of  the  schoolroom,  even  if  he  knows  his  subject-matter  quite 
well  already.  As  said  before,  he  will  not  have  had  all  the  topics  in  a 
subject  which  the  training-school  course  requires  him  to  teach.  It 
must  be  assumed,  then,  that  when  the  practice  teacher  has  to  present  a 
topic  not  studied  in  the  normal  class  he  will  be  able  to  attack  the 
problem  of  mastering  this  field  and  organizing  it  for  presentation,  by 


processes  which  are  familiar;  that  he  will  be  able  to  prepare  the 
unfamiliar  matter  and  at  the  same  time  adapt  it  to  a  class.  Thus, 
while  the  student  who  has  had  a  branch  of  study  in  a  normal  school 
will  often  not  have  adequate  knowledge  of  the  exact  topics  he  is  to 
teach,  the  practice  department  will  assume  in  lieu  of  adequate  knowl- 
edge the  power  of  acquiring  the  needed  information.  In  studying 
reading  or  biology  the  normal  student  regards  it  as  a  prospective 
instrument  of  education.  He  learns  what  it  is  good  for  in  training  a 
child's  mind  and  the  nature  of  the  appeal  it  is  fitted  to  make  to  the 
child  ;  its  organizing  idea,  its  logical  order  of  topics,  and  its  relation 
to  the  child-mind ;  that  is,  he  learns  the  main  features  of  method  in 
that  study.  Now,  just  as  the  training  department  assumes  the  neces- 
sity of  the  student's  learning  more  facts  of  subject-matter  while  he  is 
teaching,  so,  too,  it  assumes  that  the  details  of  the  process  of  adapting 
the  subject  to  a  class  are  yet  to  be  learned.  The  critic-teacher  should 
be  able  to  count  on  a  fair  quantity  and  quality  of  knowledge  of  the 
subject  to  be  taught,  a  fair  degree  of  power  to  acquire  and  organize 
new  matter,  and  a  fair  insight  into  the  educational  values  and  pedago- 
gical principles  of  the  subject-matter. 

Again,  in  the  general  method  and  psychology  the  student  will  have 
made  some  direct  study  of  the  general  problems  of  teaching ;  will 
have  learned  what  a  lesson  is ;  will  have  learned  the  laws  of  interest, 
attention,  and  other  mental  processes;  and  will  have  acquired  some 
facility  in  seeing  what  must  be  done  to  make  a  mind  work  in  a  certain 
way.  He  will  not  have  acquired  skill  in  plan-making  in  any  one 
line  of  work,  because  it  will  not  have  been  possible  to  give  continued 
practice  in  plan-making.  The  general  professional  work,  while  always 
dealing  with  concrete  cases,  must  in  the  nature  of  things  draw  first 
from  one  field,  then  from  another;  but  it  must  give  the  idea  of  the 
teaching  problem,  the  idea  of  the  plan,  the  idea  of  the  control  of  one 
mind  by  another,  with,  of  course,  some  detailed  knowledge  of  the 
schoolroom  situation,  incidentally  acquired. 

Before  beginning  his  planning  of  specific  lessons  the  critic  talks 
over  with  the  pupil-teacher  the  line  of  work  to  be  done  in  his  class  for 
the  entire  term,  helping  him  to  see  its  main  lines  of  organization  and 
its  main  values  to  the  child.  Then  the  pupil-teacher  takes  a  unit  of 
the  subject-matter  and  writes  in  detail  a  plan  for  the  presentation  of 
this  unit.  In  this  plan  he  states : 




1.  The  topics  to  be  presented. 

2.  The  lesson  movement. 
a)  Mental. 

d)  External. 

3.  What  he  expects  this  lesson  to  do  toward  the  development  of  the 
child.     This  plan  is  handed  to  the  critic,  who  carefully  considers  it  and 
suggests  changes,  if  necessary.     When,  according  to  the  critic's  idea, 
the  plan  is  worth  using,  the  pupil-teacher  employs  it  in  the  execution 
of  a  lesson.     Plans  are  handed  in  long  enough  in  advance  of  the  time 
he  is  expected  to  use  them  to  make  possible  revision  and  discussion 
before  the  lesson  itself  is  taught.     Plan-making  under  criticism  is  con- 
tinued throughout  the  three  terms  of  practice  work. 

From  the  plan-making  the  following  benefits  accrue  to  the  pupil- 
teacher  : 

1.  He  gets  a  more  minute  knowledge  of  the  subject-matter. 

2.  He  attains  facility  in  the  organization  of  the  subject-matter. 

3.  He  becomes  increasingly  skilful  in   translating  subject-matter 
into  terms  of  a  learner's  processes.     This  means  application  and  exten- 
sion of  the  knowledge  of  psychology,  general  method,  and  the  method 
of  the  particular  subject  he  is  teaching.     It  involves  also  minute  study 
of  the  particular  class.     In  the  theory  work  previously  done  he  has 
made  plans  and  considered  situations,  but  not  with  a  specific  set  of 
pupils  in  mind.     His  planning   has,  therefore,  been  largely  abstract. 
He  now  comes  to  see  subject-matter  really  as  a  mere  instrument  of 
education  and  to  see  the  child  as  the  thing  to  be  taught  and  the  chief 
factor  in  determining  the  direction  of  his  plans.     In  discussing  plans 
with  the  student  the  critic  tries  to  make  the  student's  consciousness  of 
his  class  strong  and  potent. 

4.  He  forms  the  habit  of  careful  preparation. 

5.  Through  the  natural  interests   that  the  solution  of  a  problem 
inspires  and  through  the  knowledge  he  gets  from  the  plan-making,  he 
comes  into  a  state  of  mind  in  which  the  execution  of  the  plan  promises 
pleasure,  and  which  goes  a  long  way  toward,  securing  success  in  execu- 
tion.    At  the  same  time,  however,  he  must  be  careful  to  be  so  familiar 
with  his  plans  that  he  will  not  have  to  stop  and  think  what  he  had 
meant  to  do  next;    and,  moreover,  het  must  have  so  considered  the 
possible  emergencies  of  the  lesson  that  the  changing   of  his  plan  can 
be  readily  done. 


When  a  plan  has  been  accepted,  the  pupil-teacher  sets  about  its 
execution.  He  will  find  many  points  at  which  a  pupil's  answer  will 
not  permit  the  movement  he  has  meant  to  make.  He  has  been 
encouraged  in  planning  to  consider  all  the  possible  answers  which, 
from  his  knowledge  of  the  class  and  of  conditions,  he  thinks  the  class 
may  make.  He  is  to  learn  to  see  in  every  answer  an  indication  of  the 
state  of  mind  of  the  child,  a  sign-post  showing  how  much  has  been 
accomplished  and  the  direction  which  the  teacher  must  now  take. 
While  the  student-teacher  and  his  class  work,  the  critic  is  making  note 
of  the  questions,  answers,  etc.  When  he  is  through  with  the  lesson  the 
teacher  will  come  to  the  critic  to  talk  the  lesson  over  with  her.  She 
tries  to  help  him  to  an  intelligent  understanding  of  his  lesson  in  its 
relation  to  his  plan.  He  has  intended  to  get  certain  results  in  the 
children  in  knowledge  and  training.  Did  he  accomplish  these  results  ? 
In  either  event,  why  ?  The  critic  will  call  attention  to  the  particular 
question  or  questions  on  which  the  success  of  a  lesson  hinged ;  will 
show  how  at  one  point  or  another  the  teacher  failed  to  read  accurately 
the  revelation  made  by  some  answer  as  to  what  was  going  on  in  the 
child's  mind  ;  will  help  the  teacher  to  see  what  he  should  have  done  in 
such  case.  Any  emergency  of  either  instruction  or  discipline,  and  its 
handling,  will  be  considered  as  to  the  principles  involved.  The  pupil- 
teacher  will  be  asked  to  account  for  any  lapse  of  attention  or  interest 
and  to  see  therein  the  hint  for  himself.  Such  questions  will  be  asked 
as  these :  Was  the  attention  of  the  pupils  held  by  the  subject-matter 
itself  ?  Are  the  children  forming  the  habit  of  attention  ?  What  other 
means  could  have  been  taken  to  cause  the  child  to  get  a  particular 
idea  ?  In  what  state  of  mind  did  the  children  leave  the  lesson  at  the 
close  of  the  hour?  So  far  as  opportunity  offers,  the  teacher  will  be 
caused  to  draw  consciously  on  the  professional  work  of  the  earlier 
terms  of  the  course.  In  this  way  the  practice  work  will  contribute  to 
the  fixing  and  the  extension  of  preceding  work  and  to  giving  it  con- 
creteness  in  the  student's  mind. 

The  weekly  teachers'  meeting  serves  to  clear  up  and  to  broaden 
the  student-teacher's  view  of  his  work.  In  these  meetings  there  are 
several  lines  of  discussion  : 

i.  Of  course  of  study  for  the  grade  and  for  related  grades.  An 
intelligent  view  of  the  course  is  necessary  to  the  student's  success  with 
his  little  class.  He  needs  help  in  correlating  his  work  with  that  of 


2.  Of  general  class  management,  adjustment  of  schoolroom  con- 
ditions, management  of  individual  cases  which  for  mental  or  physical 
causes  may  require  special  attention.     At  this  point  again  the  previous 
work  in  pedagogy  and  psychology  is  laid  under  tribute. 

3.  Of  purposes  and  values  of  subject-matter  as  means  of  spiritual 
growth.     Day  by  day  the  teacher  is  adapting  the  course  to  his  class. 
In  discussion  of  the  values  of  the  various  lines,  in  teachers'  meetings, 
he  comes  to  a  fuller  knowledge  and  sounder  estimate  of  the  powers  and 
limitations  of  his  class  and  of  the  various  subjects  as  well.     The  dis- 
cussions are  intended,  also,  to  stimulate  the  teacher  to  greater  interest 
in  his  problem  through  the  expounding  of  the  problem  and  through 
the  identifying  of  himself  with  others  in  its  solution.     Heads  of  depart- 
ments sometimes  meet  with  the  pupil-teachers  working  in  their  lines  in 
the  training  school  to  discuss  with  them  the  organization  of  the  sub- 
ject, the  natural  presentation  of  it,  helpful  books  and  other  means,  and 
the  good  and  the  bad  points  of  the  teaching  observed  by  the  head 
while  exercising  the  duty  of  associate  supervision.     Critics  and  pupil- 
teachers  alike  profit  by  this.     It  illuminates  the  course  in  the  subject 
and  its  method. 

Aside  from  the  student's  regular  daily  practice,  he  is  required  to  carry 
on  a  line  of  observation  and  discussion  in  attendance  upon  critiques. 
The  critique  lessons  here  are  regularly  given  by  critic-teachers  or  heads 
of  departments,  with  the  other  critic-teachers,  heads  of  other  interested 
departments,  and  the  pupil-teachers,  present.  After  the  lesson,  on 
another  day,  the  supervisor  of  practice  conducts  a  discussion  of  the 
lesson  —  its  matter,  its  organization,  its  execution,  its  educational 
values.  The  student-teachers  are  asked  to  account  for  points  in  the 
procedure,  to  justify  or  to  amend  the  plan  ;  the  critic  who  gave  the  lesson 
helps  to  intelligent  discussion  of  it  by  stating  its  place  in  the  series  of 
lessons,  the  preparation  made  by  the  children,  and  other  points.  The 
student-teacher  has  an  opportunity  to  ask  questions  about  the  mode  of 
procedure.  All  persons  present  assist  in  the  discussion.  Through  the 
critiques,  as  thus  constituted,  the  training  department  accomplishes 
certain  results  in  both  the  pupil-teacher  and  the  general  theoretical 
work.  The  function  of  the  critique  seems  to  fall  under  the  following 
points.  First,  it  provides  a  basis  for  discussion  of  the  practical  work- 
ings of  the  method  taught  in  the  various  departments.  Second,  it 
gives  opportunity  for  such  discussion  of  the  course  of  study  as  will 
lead  to  its  thorough  understanding  by  critics  and  heads  of  departments. 


The  critique  enables  the  critics  to  see  lines  of  work  in  other  rooms  by 
other  critics.  Not  only  will  their  clearer  knowledge  of  the  course  be 
an  advantage  as  regards  their  execution  of  their  particular  divisions  of 
it,  but  a  general  harmony  of  movement  will  thus  be  facilitated,  to  the 
manifest  advantage  of  the  whole  training  school  when  we  reckon  it  as 
a  force  intended  to  affect  the  student-teacher.  Third,  through  the 
discussions  arises  the  opportunity  for  unification  of  modes  of  criticism. 
The  handling  of  the  lesson  by  supervisor,  heads  of  departments,  and 
critics  establishes  a  common  point  of  view  and  perspective  for  criticism. 
Those  salient  features  of  a  good  lesson,  the  thought  of  which  must 
make  an  atmosphere  for  the  student-teacher  in  the  daily  teaching,  and 
for  the  critic  in  her  observation  of  that  daily  teaching,  are  brought 
again  and  again  before  the  mind  until  they  establish  themselves  as  a 
sort  of  working  model.  The  establishment  of  common  ground  in 
criticism  is  important.  It  unifies  the  critic  force  so  that  they  count  for 
more  in  the  reduction  of  current  faults  among  the  groups  of  student- 
teachers.  Thus  at  any  point  in  the  training  school  help  and  correction 
will  be  as  systematic  and  scientific  as  at  any  other  point.  Fourth,  the 
heads  of  other  departments  have  associate  oversight  of  practice  work 
in  their  lines.  Their  attendance  at  such  critiques  as  concern  their 
work  will  facilitate  their  advising  with  critic-teachers  about  the  presen- 
tation of  these  subjects,  and  so  will  assist  in  making  the  desired  har- 
mony between  the  theory  of  the  normal  class-room  and  the  practice  of 
the  training  school.  Fifth,  through  the  points  thus  far  mentioned  the 
student-teacher  is  subject  to  such  advantage  as  comes  from  more 
efficient  work  on  the  part  of  critics,  supervisors,  and  heads  of  other 
departments.  However,  he  achieves  directly  some  notable  benefits 
from  the  critiques : 

1.  He  sees  and  discusses  model  lessons.     His  own  teaching,  with 
its  inevitable  faults,  obscures  the  ideal  he  may  have  brought  to  his  work 
from  his  preceding  study.     It  is  important  that  this  ideal  be  brought 
into  clear  relief,  until  he  shall  have  acquired  power  to  keep  it  before 
him.      Further,  the  skilful  handling  of  emergencies  by  the  critic,  and 
the  analysis  of  this  in  the  discussion,  will  be  full  of  suggestion  to  the 
student-teacher,  who  will  carry  back  to  his  class  increased  knowledge 
of  the  art  of  teaching,  and  encouragement  born  of  that  knowledge. 

2.  The  student-teacher  is  through  the  critiques  enabled  to  see  his 
subject  in  the  course  in  other  grades.      The  skilful  fulfilling  of  his 
immediate  responsibility  rests  on  his  knowing  what  has  to  be  done  in 


that  study  from  grade  to  grade.  The  topics  in  their  sequence  he 
studied  more  or  less  fully  before  he  entered  on  his  practice  work,  and 
something  of  how  to  teach  them.  Now  day  by  day  he  sees  in  his  class 
the  minute  development  of  a  term's  work,  and  in  the  critiques  he  sees 
how  the  topics  of  one  grade  fit  into  the  work  of  another.  His  work 
assumes  a  larger  responsibility,  seen  in  relation  to  the  work  in  other 
grades.  He  also  learns  the  difference  in  the  powers  and  habits  of 
mind  in  children  of  different  grades,  and  becomes  a  closer  and  more 
skilful  student  of  his  own. 

3.  He  will  observe  in  the  critiques  other  lines  of  work  in  the  grade 
in  which  he  teaches.     Often  he  does  not  make  his  work  contribute  as 
it  ought  to  the  development  of  the  children,  because  he  does  not  know 
what  they  are  doing  at  other  times  in  the  day.     The  regular  teacher  of 
a  school  makes  his  work  a  unit ;  the  student-teacher  sees  and  is  respon- 
sible for  only  a  fraction.     Force  and  time  are  thus  lost  to  the  children. 
This  loss,  inevitable  in  a  training  school,  can  only  partly  be  made  up 
by  the  critic,  and  can  partly  be  lessened  if  the  pupil-teacher  familiarizes 
himself  with  what  goes  on  in  other  classes.    The  critiques  and  teachers' 
meetings  help  him  to  do  this. 

4.  The  student-teacher  gets  something  of   the  significance  of   a 
course  of  study  in  watching  illustrative  lessons  through  the  course  that 
he  cannot  get  in  any  other  way.     He  sees  the  difference  in  extent  and 
character  of  apperceptive  material  from  grade  to  grade,  and  the  differ- 
ent modes  of  treatment  thereby  made  necessary ;  the  contribution  of 
each  subject   to  the  child's    development ;    the  interrelations   of   the 
several  subjects.     He  ought  to  know  an  ideal  course  of  study  longi- 
tudinally and  in  cross-sections ;  and  to  such  knowledge  the  critiques 
pave  the  way,  thus  co-operating  with  all  other  lines  of  practice  work. 

The  part  of  the  supervisor  of  practice  in  these  critiques  is  that  of 
director  and  observer.  He  must,  from  his  knowledge  of  the  needs  of 
the  pupil-teachers,  designate  the  order  of  the  illustrative  lessons.  He 
is  responsible  for  the  organization  of  the  critiques  into  a  body  of  les- 
sons that  shall  effectively  supplement  the  method  work  and  the  prac- 
tice work  in  training  the  student-teacher.  He  must  plan  the  lessons 
and  conduct  the  discussions  with  his  finger  on  the  pulse  of  the  student- 
teacher —  must  diagnose  the  need  and  provide  material  that  shall  meet 
it.  He  may  make  the  critique  one  of  the  most  helpful  of  the  agencies 
by  which  the  student-teacher  acquires  a  working  knowledge  of  the  art 
of  teaching. 



In  carrying  out  the  plan  of  work  outlined  and  discussed  in  the 
preceding  pages  we  have  met  with  many  difficulties  that  have  not  yet 
been  entirely  removed : 

1.  The  preparation  of  pupil-teachers  at  the  time  of  entering  upon 
the  practice  work  is  often  inadequate  either  in  scholarship  and  power 
in  the  subject,  or  quantity  and  quality  of  pedagogical   knowledge. 
Inasmuch  as  the  student-teachers  are  expected  to  devote  only  about 
one-fourth  of  their  time  to  the  preparation  and  teaching  of  their  prac- 
tice-school lessons,  it  frequently  happens  that  a  student  cannot  acquire 
the  necessary  subject-matter  and  organize  it  for  presentation  within 
the  time  at  his  command.     The  other  deficiency  is  often  due  to  a  fail- 
ure on  the  part  of  the  student  to  realize  the  essential  unity  and  purpose 
of  his  course  as  he  takes  the  various  subjects,  or  to  hold  himself  respon- 
sible for  retaining  for  future  use  the  matter  acquired  in  any  one  term. 
Full  knowledge  of  what  goes  on  in  the  training  school  would  enable 
heads  of  departments  to  use  that  school  more  frequently  for  reference 
or  for  actual  illustration.     If  this  be  done  in  each  subject,  the  student 
is  more  likely  to  think  of  each  new  item   of  knowledge  in   relation 
to  actual  teaching,  and  the  various  items  will  then  stand  a  better 
chance  of  living  on  in  the  thread  of  connection  between  theory  and 

2.  Insufficient  provision  has  been  made  for  conferences  between 
the  various  normal  instructors  and  the  critics  in  the  various  grades. 
Each  should  see  the  other  at  work,  and  know  his  plans  and  purposes, 
and  have  time  to  discuss  the  theories  of  both  departments  and  their 
realization  in  practice.     To  establish  unity  of  the  entire  normal  school, 
professional  faculty  meetings  are  held  fortnightly.     In  these  meetings 
the  various  heads  of  departments  state,  with  as  much  fulness  as  time 
will  permit,  the  purpose  and  plan  of  their  work.     Where  each  of  the 
normal  faculty  has  had  a  more  or  less  extended  experience  in  public- 
school  work,  there  is  not  wanting  a  general  interest  in  these  papers 
and  discussions.     Through  them  all  the  teachers  gain,  in  a  much  bet- 
ter way  than  mere  class  visitation  will  permit,  some  notion  of  what 
their  colleagues  are  attempting. 

3.  It  is  believed  that  the  work  in  practice  should  be  graded  so  that 
the  three  terms'  teaching  should  provide  progression  in  difficulty  of 
problems,  and  consequently  a  natural  and  continuous  growth  on  the 
part  of  the  student-teacher.     It  has  been  found  impossible  to  provide 


this  in  every  case,  partly  because  of  the  irregularity  of  student  pro- 
grams and  of  the  requirements  of  the  practice-school  program  as 
ordered  with  reference  to  the  convenience  of  the  heads  of  normal 
departments;  partly  because  of  the  different  fields  of  work  in  the 
public  schools  for  which  the  students  are  making  preparation. 

4.  There  exists  the  difficulty,  found  in  every  practice  school,  of 
properly  co-ordinating  the  various  studies  pursued  by  any  child.     An 
attempt  is  now  made  to  solve  this  problem  by  providing  that  critics 
shall  have  continuous  charge  of  their  pupils  for  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  each  day.     When  the  critic  can  do  a  large  part  of  the  teaching 
herself,  she  can  secure  in  the  children  a  unity  of  feeling  and  a  com- 
munity of  experience  which  will  make  them  more  like  an  ordinary 
school  for  pupil-teachers  to  work  in.     She  can  also  make  up  for  defi- 
ciencies in  the   training   given   by  the   student-teachers.      Such   an 
arrangement  enables  critics  to  make  trial  of  method  as  planned  in  con- 
nection with  the  head  of  the  department,  and  thus  provide  the  way 
for  advancement  in  the  theory  work  in  the  normal  school. 

5.  Some  inertia  is  encountered  in  the  matter  of  having  classes  in 
the  training  school  and  illustrative  lessons  taught  by  regular  normal- 
school  instructors.     Long  experience  in  the  teaching  of  adults  tends 
to  unfit  one  for  handling  children. 

6.  It  is  not  always  practicable  to  assign  student-teachers  to  the 
classes  for  which  they  are  best  adapted  and  to  provide  for  all  the  classes 
student-teachers  who    have  completed  all  the   theory  work    in    that 
branch  in  the  normal  department.     This  difficulty  is  inevitable  unless 
a  portion  of  the  practice-teaching  be  deferred  until  the  completion  of 
the  normal  course. 


From  the  foregoing  report  it  is  evident  that,  while  the  close  rela- 
tion established  between  the  two  faculties  of  theory  and  practice  have 
enabled  this  school  to  render  its  training  department  more  efficient, 
the  problem  is  not  completely  solved.  If  a  single  teacher  of  encyclo- 
paedic culture  and  the  highest  pedagogic  skill  could  give  a  small  group 
of  students  all  their  instruction  in  theory,  and  in  person  supervise  all 
their  teaching,  there  might  be  attained  the  desired  unity  between 
theory  and  practice.  To  bring  the  work  of  thirty  people  working  in 
separate  fields  into  harmony,  or  rather  into  the  unity  and  singleness  of 
purpose  essential  to  the  work  of  an  institution,  is  no  easy  matter.  Yet 


the  problem  must  be  resolutely  attacked.  Mere  eclecticism  will  not 
answer.  Any  such  course  of  action  is  likely  to  beget  the  feeling  that 
one  way  is  as  good  as  another.  There  certainly  has  been  worked  out 
through  the  experience  of  the  centuries  some  body  of  pedagogical  doc- 
trine to  which  all  well-informed  students  of  education  will  assent. 
The  normal  student  should  come  into  his  professional  inheritance 
unembarrassed  by  clouds  upon  the  title. 


By  L.  SEELEY, 

State  Normal  School,  Trenton,  N.  J. 

IN  discussing  this  subject  it  seems  to  me  that  we  should  first  agree 
upon  a  definition  of  terms.  John  Locke  says  that  most  of  the  quarrels 
that  men  engage  in  would  never  take  place  if  they  would  stop  to  ask 
each  other  what  they  mean. 


What  do  we  mean  by  "theory"?  There  are  two  views  of  theory 
which  may  be  taken,  as  follows : 

i.  That  which  involves  a  knowledge  of  the  professional  subjects 
necessary  to  the  teacher.  These  subjects  are : 

a)  History  of  education,  which  describes  the  educational  movements 
of  the  past ;  sets  forth   the  lives  and  teachings  of  great  thinkers  who 
have  written  educational  works  or  who  have  been  great  teachers ;  out- 
lines the  systems  and  theories  of  education  that  have  been  promul- 
gated ;  traces  the  advance  of  civilization  through  educational  means ; 
gives  warning  as  to  the  errors  of  the  past ;  and  suggests  new  fields  for 
future  improvement  and  investigation. 

b)  Method,  which    treats  of   the  natural,  orderly,  and  systematic 
manner  of  presenting  the  subject-matter  to  the  mind ;  or,  as  Kant  puts 
it,  "  Method  is  procedure  according  to  principles."     A  knowledge  of 
method  is  essential  to  the  theoretical  preparation  of  the  teacher. 

c)  School  management,   which    considers    school    discipline,   good 
order,  proper  habits,  correct  morals,  relation  of  the  school  to  the  com- 
munity, as  well  as  other  matters  connected  with  the  internal  affairs  of 
the  school,  such  as  promotion,  classification  of  the  school,  the  daily 
schedule  of  work,  school  incentives,  etc. 

d)  A  knowledge  of  the  subject-matter,  not  only  from  the  culture 
standpoint,  but  also  concerning  its  value  for  the  purpose  of  intellectual 
discipline.     This  must  embrace  a  far  broader  range  of  material  than 
the  specific  subjects  that   one   is  called   upon  to  teach.     The  teacher 
must  possess  a  reserve  of  knowledge  upon  which  he  can  draw  in  case 
of  need. 



e)  A  knowledge  of  man.  This  enables  the  teacher  to  care  for  the 
physical  being;  it  makes  him  acquainted  with  the  intellectual  activities 
and  the  laws  that  govern  these  activities,  that  is,  with  psychology;  it 
includes  a  knowledge  of  man's  moral  and  religious  nature. 

/)  Philosophy  of  education,  which  determines  the  nature,  defines  the 
limits,  and  states  the  aim  of  education. 

These  subjects  set  forth  the  general  idea  of  the  theory  of  education 
upon  which  there  is  an  agreement  among  educators,  though  they  may 
differ  as  to  details.  As  there  is  this  general  agreement,  a  discussion  of 
this  phase  of  theory  would  hardly  be  profitable.  I  shall  therefore 
present  another  view  for  consideration  at  this  time. 

2.  This  other  view  of  theory  is  as  follows:  It  contemplates  the  defi- 
nite knowledge  of  each  subject  of  the  curriculum,  which  the  pupil- 
teacher  must  know  before  he  is  ready  for  practice.  It  embraces  also  a 
knowledge  of  the  order  of  arrangement  of  material,  of  essentials  and 
non-essentials,  of  the  method  and  order  of  presentation,  of  the  science 
and  art  of  teaching.  We  believe  at  Trenton  that  the  young  pupil- 
teacher  must  be  grounded  in  theory  in  this  latter  sense  before  he  can 
successfully  practice.  Therefore,  ten  years  ago  the  faculty  of  the  nor- 
mal school  prepared  a  syllabus  of  work  for  all  of  the  subjects  of  the 
course  of  study  and  for  all  classes,  under  the  title,  "  Studies  in  Plan." 
This  appeared  in  the  Annual  Report  of  the  school  for  the  year  1893, 
and  awakened  widespread  interest  among  educators  in  many  parts  of 
the  world.  In  1901  this  work  was  revised  and  presented  to  the  New 
Jersey  Council  of  Education  as  Document  No.  21,  with  the  title,  "A  Sug- 
gestive Course  of  Study  for  Primary,  Grammar,  and  High  School 

This  document,  as  its  title  suggests,  attempts  to  furnish  an  outline 
of  the  material  that  should  be  presented  in  the  grades  included.  In  so 
far  as  it  has  succeeded  in  doing  this,  it  presents  a  theory  upon  which 
the  pupil- teachers  can  base  their  practice.  With  such  an  outline  in 
mind,  they  have  a  definite  plan  by  which  to  present  any  given  subject 
that  they  may  be  called  upon  to  teach.  The  student  has  a  theory  which  it 
is  his  duty  to  put  into  practice.  He  is  thus  not  left  in  doubt  as  to  what 
he  is  to  do.  A  great  deal  has  been  gained  when  the  pupil-teacher  is 
well  grounded  in  theory.  Without  this  the  highest  success  in  practice 
cannot  be  hoped  for. 

1  Document  No.  21  may  be  had  at  the  Normal  School,  Trenton,  N.  J.,  at  a  cost  of 
30  cents. 


All  of  the  work  involved  in  the  general  idea  of  theory  as  presented 
at  the  outset  of  this  paper  cannot  be  completed  before  the  practice 
must  begin.  The  subjects  enumerated  are  carried  up  to  the  end  of  the 
course,  while  the  practice-work  must  begin  a  year  or  a  year  and  a  half 
earlier.  But  theory  according  to  this  second  view  may  be  obtained  in 
time  to  be  employed  from  the  beginning  of  the  practice  work. 

I  shall  therefore  present  for  your  consideration  the  outline  of  work 
in  geography  as  a  type  of  the  theoretical  work  to  be  mastered  by  our 
student  and  taught  in  his  practice-work  in  that  subject.  As  I  have 
already  remarked,  the  document  in  question,  from  which  this  work  is 
taken,  includes  all  of  the  subjects  of  the  curriculum  from  the  begin- 
ning of  the  primary  to  the  end  of  the  high  school  grades.  This  work 
will  furnish  a  definite  and  specific  subject  for  discussion  and  criticism 
by  the  Society.  Is  the  work  in  geography  as  presented  sound  in  theory 
and  suitable  as  the  basis  of  preparation  for  practice-work  by  the  pupil- 
teacher  in  that  subject?  We  believe  that  it  is,  and  therefore  present 
the  subject  as  follows : 


The  special  province  of  the  science  of  Geography  is  to  deal  with  the 
relations  existing  between  physical  conditions  and  political  facts.  Diversity 
of  surface  and  climate  controls  the  distribution  of  plants,  animals,  and  min- 
erals, aids  in  the  development  of  industries,  fixes  the  location  of  cities,  and 
facilitates  or  hinders  commerce.  Therefore  the  aim  in  this  course  of  study 
is  to  give  due  recognition  to  the  natural  forces  and  conditions  by  which 
human  activity  and  progress  are  shaped.  The  leading  ideas  are  that  the 
civilization  of  the  people  in  any  region  gives  expression  to  the  combined 
influence  of  all  the  surrounding  physical  conditions  upon  the  life  of  those 
people  ;  and  that  diversity  in  feature,  form,  and  character  of  the  earth's  sur- 
face, in  any  region,  gives  expression  to  the  combined  influence  of  all  the 
destructive  and  constructive  forces  in  nature. 
A.  Preparation  for  map-reading. 
I.  Position. 

1.  Practice  in  describing  the  relative  position  of  familiar  objects. 

2.  Sketch  maps  of  rooms  or  walls  that  are  not  before  the  eye  at  the 
time  when  the  work  is  done. 

II.     Direction, 
i.    Personal. 

a)  Right  —  left. 
&)  Up  —  down. 

1  This  course  was  prepared  by  Miss  SUSAN  A.  REILLY,  instructor  in  geography, 
State  Normal  School,  Trenton,  N.  J. 


2.    Cardinal. 

d)  North  —  south. 

b)  East  —  west. 

c)  Midday  line  or  local  meridian. 
d}  Horizon  —  cardinal  points. 

e)  Compass. 

III.    Distance. 

1.  Idea  of  scale. 

2.  Idea  of  time  as  a  unit  of  measure  in  estimating  distances. 

3.  Practice  in  scale-drawing  until  the  child  can  show  the  general 
space  relations  of  all  the  ground  he  personally  knows. 

B.  Field  and  laboratory  work. 

This  work  is  intended  both  to  anticipate  and  supplement  class  work. 
The  aim  in  the  actual  field  work  is,  first,  to  train  the  students  "to  see  when 
they  look  and  know  when  they  see ;"  and,  second,  to  store  their  minds 
with  memories  of  real  things,  conditions,  and  relations.  To  secure  this, 
observation  is  directed  by  definite  questions,  and  written  reports  of  the 
results  of  the  observations  are  required,  especially  when  the  work  is  not 
personally  conducted  by  the  teacher. 

By  studying  the  relations  that  exist  between  the  running  water,  wind, 
air,  frost,  and  the  surface  of  the  earth,  the  students  are  gradually  led  to 
appreciate  the  fact  that  every  natural  form  has  attained  its  present  shape 
by  continual  action  in  the  past  of  the  same  agencies  which  today  are  pro- 
ducing changes  upon  its  surface.  It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  all  the 
various  geographical  forms  and  processes  will  be  found  in  any  single  neigh- 
borhood. The  objects  of  study  must  vary  ;  the  student  being  necessarily 
limited  in  his  field  work  to  what  the  neighborhood  and  the  season  of  the 
year  offer. 

I.  Outdoor  work.     School  grounds. 

1.  Basis  for  teaching  cardinal  directions. 

d)  Path  of  sun. 

b)  Position  of  the  sun  in  the  morning,  at  noon,  and  in  the  evening. 

c)  Change  in  the  direction  and  length  of  shadow  during  the  day. 

d)  Shortest  shadow. 

2.  Physical  features. 

a)  Drainage  systems  during  a  storm. 

(1)  The  growth   of  the  drainage  area  of  a  master-stream, 
shifting  of  divides,  increase  in  number  of  tributaries,  and 
effect  of  stream-action  upon  the  road. 

(2)  Formation  and  disappearance  of  puddles. 


H)  Forms  of  water  on  the  earth. 

(1)  Dew. 

When  and  where  formed. 
Effect  of  the  sun. 

(2)  Snow. 

Shapes  of  the  flakes. 

Effect  of  wind. 

Effect  of  melting  upon  the  ground  and  the  creek. 

(3)  Ice. 

When  and  where  formed. 
Effect  upon  the  water. 
Thickness.     Uses. 

(4)  Frost. 

When  and  where  formed. 
Effect  of  sun. 
3.    Soil. 

a)  Effect  of  running  water. 

b)  Effect  of  rainfall. 

c)  Effect  of  frost. 

d)  Effect  of  fallen  leaves. 
II.    Weather. 

1.  Winds. 

a)  Direction. 

b)  Force. 

2.  Forms  of  water  in  the  air. 

a)  Clouds  and  fogs. 

(1)  Shapes  and  motion  of  clouds. 

(2)  Height,  quantity,  and  kind  of  clouds  at  different  times 
of  the  day. 

(3)  Difference  between  fog  and  cloud. 

b)  Vapor. 

C.  People. 

I.    Interest  the  children  in  the  human  life  around  them. 
II.    Stories  of  the  people  of  other  lands. 
A.  Prepare  for  map-reading. 

I.    Position. 

1 .  Study  of  a  well-made  map  of  a  region  which  the  children  have 

2.  Maps  of  sections  which  the  students  have  traversed,  made  from 
memory,  using  colors  and  conventionalized  symbols. 


II.  Direction. 

1 .  Sketch  maps  are  referred  to  the  points  of  the  compass. 

2.  Study  of  the  city  map. 

3.  How  to  find  one's  bearings  in  a  strange  town. 
III.  Distance. 

1 .  Conception  of  height  as  a  space  element,  beginning  with  the 
height  of  familiar  objects,  such  as  school  building  and  trees. 

2.  The  height  of  hills  and  the  relation  of  height 'to  horizontal  extent. 
B.  Field  and  laboratory  work. 

I.  Outdoor  work.     Excursions  to  the  country  near  the  school. 

1.  Applications  of  cardinal  directions. 

2.  Physical  features. 

a)  Recognition  of  the  real  surface  features — marsh,  hill,  plain, 
meadow,  gravel-bank,  bowlder,  lake,  creek,  river. 

b)  Shape  and  structure  of  the  land  forms. 

c)  Relation  of  each  form  to  the  surrounding  country,  and  to  the 
waste  and  water  streams. 

d)  Influence  upon  the  occupations  of  the  people. 

e)  Characteristic  features  of  river,  creek,  lake.     Extent  of  flood 
plain,  undermining  of  banks,  deepening  or  widening  of  chan- 
nel, transportation  of  silt,  building  of  bars  and  spits,  falls  and 
rapids,  limits  of  the  stream  valley,  character  of  the  shore  and 

/)    Relation  of  the  water-power  to  the  industries  of  the  city. 
g)   Formation  and  development  of  a  gully  on  a  bluff  or  embank- 

3.  Soil — quarry  or  railroad  cut. 

a)  Kinds — clay,  sand,  gravel. 

b)  Colors  at  the  surface — changes  in  color  and  coarseness  with 
increasing  depth. 

<:)    Composition  and  depth. 

d)  Relation  to  the  rock -bed  and  to  the  vegetation. 

e)  Relation  of  the  roots  of  the  trees  to  the  rock-bed  ;  of  the  sod 
to  the  surface  soil. 

II.  Weather. 

1.  Reading  the  thermometer  and  keeping  records  of  temperature, 
direction  of  wind,  forms  of  clouds  and  storms. 

2.  Daily  and  monthly  range  in  temperature. 

3.  Relation  of  clouds  to  temperature,  rainfall,  frost,  and  dew. 

4.  Prediction  of  the  weather  from  cloud  and  wind. 


III.  Excursions  in  the  city. 

1.  Pottery,    stone-yard,  brick-yard,   etc.,  noticing   the    stages   and 
processes  in  the  preparation  of  material  for  the  use  of  man. 

2.  Store  or  market  as  a  distributing  center  connecting  us  with  the 
outside  world. 

3.  Railroad  and  freight  stations,  noticing  coal,  freight,  and  oil  cars, 
their  contents  and  destination. 

4.  State  house.     Historical  monuments. 

5.  Materials  used  in  public  and  private  buildings,  roads,  bridges, 
and  pavements. 

6.  Distribution  of  the  population  with  reference  to  the  business 

7.  Relation  of  the  city  to  the  surrounding  country. 

IV.  Class-room  work. 

1.  Tracing  on  the  city  map  the  routes  of  the  excursions. 

2.  Study  of  typical  pictures  of  the  regions  visited  and  of  similar 
and  contrasting  regions. 

3.  Studying  a  sand  map  of  the  home  region. 

4.  Studying  representations  in  sand  of  type  surface  features  that 
are  not  found  in  the  neighborhood. 

5.  Molding  features  from  pictures  and  from  memory. 

C.  People.     In  the  city. 

I.  General  occupations. 
II.  Leading  industries.     The  dependence  of  the  occupations  upon  the 

surrounding  physical  conditions. 
III.  Interdependence  of  all  classes. 

A.  The  earth  as  whole. 
I.  Form  and  size. 
II.  Conception  of  the  earth  in  space. 

III.  Distribution  of  land  and  water. 

1.  Land  and  water,  eastern  and  western,  northern  and  southern 

2.  Continents  and  oceans. 

IV.  Motions. 

I.    Rotation. 

a)    Day  and  night. 

&)    Directions  on  the  globe. 

c)    Parallels  and  meridians. 


2.    Revolution. 

a)  Plane  of  orbit. 

b)  Inclination  of  axis. 

c)  Direction  of  axis. 
V.  Zones. 

1.  How  the  earth  is  heated. 

2.  How  the  boundaries  of  the  zones  are  fixed. 

3.  Characteristics  of  each  zone. 

a}   Variation  in  the  length  of  day  and  the  angle  of  sunshine  in 
the  different  zones. 

b)  Temperature. 

c)  Rainfall. 

d)  Life. 

VI.  Atmosphere. 

1.  How  the  air  is  heated. 

a)  Effect  of  mountains. 

b)  Effect  of  clouds. 

2.  Winds. 

a)  Why  winds  blow. 

b)  General  circulation. 

3.  Evaporation  and  condensation. 

B.  Field  and  laboratory  work. 

I.     Outdoor  work. 

1.  Basis  for  teaching  the  zones. 

a)  The  morning  and  evening  temperatures  are  associated  with 
the  low  position  of  the  sun  and  the  midday  temperature  with 
the  high  position  of  the  sun. 

b)  The  north  and  the  south  movement  of  the  sun  at  noon  is 
observed,  and  school  records  are  kept,  so  that  the  student 
can  find  the  dates  of  the  highest  and  the  lowest  position  of 
the  sun. 

c)  The  winter  cold\s  referred  to  the  low  path  of  the  sun  and  the 
short  day ;  the  summer  heat  to  the  high  path  of  the  sun  and 
the  long  day. 

d)  Seasonal  changes  in  temperature,  plants,  animals,  rainfall, 
soil,  and  clouds  are  observed  and  recorded. 

2.  Physical  features. 

Continue  the  work  already  indicated. 

3.  Soil. 

a)  Formation  of  soil. 

(i)  Quiet  work  of  the  air. 


(2)  Work  of  mosses  and  lichens. 

(3)  Work  of  animals. 

(4)  Work  of  growing  things. 

(5)  Work  of  underground  streams. 

b)  Waste  of  the  soil. 

(1)  Effect  of  surface  run-off. 

(2)  Effect  of  plowing. 

(3)  Effect  of  forest-clearing. 

c)  Fertility  of  the  soil. 

II.     Weather. 

Continue  the  records,  comparing  the  weather  elements  and  mak- 
ing simple  generalizations  which  will  be  useful  in  later  years  in  the 
study  of  winds  and  climate. 

III.  Excursions  in  the  city. 

Continue  the  work  indicated. 

IV.  Class-room  work. 

1.  Construction  of  contour  maps  from  carefully  prepared  models  on 
the  sand  table. 

2.  Sketching  cross-sections  of  sand  maps. 

3.  Identification  of  the  prominent  features  of  the  neighborhood  on 
the   local   contour  map,  reading  the  height,  shape,  slope,  and 
relative  position. 

4.  Work  with  globe,  showing — 

a)  Day  and  night. 

b)  Relative  position  of  the  earth  and  sun  at  the  equinoxes  and 
solstices.     Descriptions. 

5.  Experiments  to  show  why  winds  blow. 

6.  Experiments  in  evaporation    and    condensation,    as   a   help    in 
understanding  the  influence  of  winds  upon  climate  and  of  moun- 
tains upon  the  character  of  the  wind. 

7.  Study  of  pictures — written  descriptions. 

8.  Finding  the  latitude  and  longitude  of  many  places. 

C.  People.     Races. 

Very  general  and  elementary  work  considering  the  leading  char- 
acteristics and  distribution  of  the  races. 

A  thorough  treatment  of  this  topic  is  impossible  until  the  physi- 
cal environment  of  each  race  is  known  and  understood,  Special 
study  of  the  people  should,  therefore,  follow  the  study  of  the  physi- 
cal conditions  of  each  continent. 


A.  Continental  work. 

All  the  continents  are  first  studied  in  an  elementary  way,  empha- 
sizing only  the  general  physical  and  political  features,  so  that 
students  can  more  easily  trace  the  chain  of  relations  connecting 
man  with  his  physical  environment.  The  order  of  study  is  North 
America,  Europe,  Asia,  South  America,  Africa,  and  Australia. 

The  second  treatment  of  the  continents  considers  the  origin, 
structure,  and  development  of  each,  giving  special  attention  to  the 
geological  development  of  North  America,  United  States,  and  New 
Jersey,  and  to  the  geographical  details  of  the  great  commercial 
countries  of  the  world. 

I.     Outline  for  the  study  of  the  continent  of  North  America,  regarding 
it  as  a  whole. 

1.  Position,  relative  and  absolute. 

2.  Size,  comparison  with. 
a)  Australia  as  a  unit. 
b  )  Other  continents. 

3.  Coast  line. 

a)  Features. 
Hudson  Bay. 

Gulf  of  Mexico ;  etc. 

b)  Continental  shelf. 

4.  Surface. 

a)  Position,  extent,  height,  arrangement,  and  character  of  the 
Primary  and  Secondary  highlands,  including  plateaus  and 
principal  mountain  ranges. 

b}  Influences  of  highlands  on  the  continental  slopes;  the  position, 
volume,  and  work  of  rivers ;  the  character  of  winds ;  the  tem- 
perature of  air ;  the  occupations  of  people ;  and  the  irregu- 
larity and  character  of  coast  line. 

c)  Position,    extent,  and  structure   of   the   lowlands.      Coastal 
plains,  uplands,  lake  plains,  flood  plains,  and  deltas. 

d)  Influence  of  the  lowlands  upon  industries,  drainage,  and  char- 
acter of  shore  line. 

5.  Drainage. 

a)  Rivers. 

Mississippi,  Ohio,  and  Missouri,  etc. 

b)  Relation  of  rivers  to  land  forms,  land  waste,  distribution  of 
soil,  commercial  intercourse,  and  development  of  industries. 

c)  Lakes. 

(i)    Great  Lakes,  considering  their  effect  upon  the  St.  Law- 
rence and  the  climate  of  surrounding  regions. 


(2)  Great  Salt  Lake,  considering  its  relation  to  the  climate 
and  the  surrounding  country. 

6.  Soil. 

a)  Relation  to  the  structure  of  tthe  underlying  rocks  and  to  the 
glacial  accident. 

b)  Effect  of  plowing,  cutting  of  trees,  and  cultivation. 

7.  Climate. 

a)   The  temperature  and  rainfall  as  controlled  by  position,  sur- 
face, winds,  indentations  of  coast,  and  ocean  currents. 
b}   Influence  of  climate  and  soil  upon  the  fertility  of  a  region. 

8.  Productions. 

a)  Distribution  of  then  characteristic  plants,  animals,  and  min- 
erals as  determined  by  the  nature  of  the  surface,  soil,  and 

fr)  Division  of  labor  resulting  from  this  distribution  and  the  conse- 
quent necessity  for  intercourse  between  the  different  sections. 

c)  Special  consideration  of  some  of   the  staple  products  and 
typical  industries — cotton  for  the  southern  states  or  mining 
for  the  middle  Atlantic,  etc. 

9.  Commerce. 

a)  Natural  conditions  promoting  commercial  intercourse. 

(1)  Absence  of  surface  barriers. 

(2)  Great  river  systems. 

(3)  Extensive  coast  line  and  good  harbors. 

(4)  Simplicity  of  structure,  making  it  possible  to  connect  the 
different  river  routes  by  canals  and  the  commercial  cen- 
ters by  railroads. 

b)  Commodities. 

c)  Commercial  routes, 
(r)    Cities. 

New  York,  Boston,  Chicago,  New  Orleans,  St.  Louis, 
San  Francisco,  Baltimore,  Buffalo,  Philadelphia,  Mon- 
treal, Washington,  Quebec. 

(2)  Influence  of  surrounding  physical  conditions  upon  the 
location,  growth,  commercial  importance,  exports  and 
imports  of  each  city. 

10.  Influence    of    the  geographic    conditions    upon    the  settlement 
and  development  of  the  continent. 

11.  Political  divisions. 

12.  People. 


II.  Europe. 

III.  Asia. 

IV.  South  America. 
V.  Africa. 

VI.  Australia. 

B.     Field  and  Laboratory  work. 

I.  Outdoor  work  —  school  grounds. 

1.  Finding  the  local  meridian  and  the  time  of  shortest  shadow. 

2.  Difference  between  the  solar  time  and  standard  time  at  Trenton. 

3.  Variation  of  the  compass. 

4.  Determination  of  the  latitude  by  means  of  the  sun  or  the  north 

II.  Weather. 

1.  Monthly  summaries  of  the  daily  observations,  including  — 

a)  Prevailing  winds. 

b)  Clearing  winds — storm  winds. 

c)  The  order  of  the  changes  in  the  direction  of  the  wind  during 
a  particular  storm — whether  veering  or  backing. 

d)  Kind  of  clouds  before,  after,  and  during  a  storm. 

e)  The  greatest  range  in  temperature. 

2.  Notice  the  weather  flags  and  the  public  forecast. 

III.  Excursions  to  — 

1 .  Clay  pits,  glacial  drift,  gravel  plain,  and  the  wind-blown  sands 
along  the  Delaware. 

2.  Exposures  showing  the  rock-beds,  gneiss,  shale,  and  sandstone. 

IV.  Class-room  work. 

1.  The  study  of  specimens  of  common  rocks,  soils,  and  minerals, 
especially  those  found  in  New  Jersey,  as  gneiss,  slate,  shale,  lime- 
stone, trap,  sandstone,  conglomerate,  loam,  marl,  sand,   clay, 
graval,  quartz,  feldspar,  and  mica. 

2.  The  study  of  specimens,  showing  the  first  stages  in  soil-forma- 
tion.    Specimens  of  disintegrating  rock. 

3.  The  study  of  specimens  of  coal,  peat,  punk.      Specimens  of  the 
products  of  coal. 

4.  Typical  pictures  of  the  continent  that  is  being  studied. 

5.  Construction  of  a  sand  map  of  the  continent  under  consideration 
in  class. 

6.  Map  reading — written.     This  work  is  done  before  the  new  con- 
tinent is  studied. 


G.  People. 

I.  Race. 
II.  Nationalities. 

III.  Education. 

IV.  Religion. 

V.  Government. 
VI.  General  civilization. 

A.  The  earth  as  a  whole. 
I.  Shape  and  size. 
II.  Origin. 

III.  Motions. 

1.  Rotation. 

2.  Revolution. 

IV.  Magnetism. 

1.  Magnetic  meridians. 

2.  Declination    of  the  compass   needle,  with   illustrations  of  the 
practical  value  of  this  knowledge. 

V.  Geographical  elements. 

1.  Nature  of  each. 

2.  Motions  of  each. 

3.  Interrelations. 
VI.  Atmosphere. 

1.  Composition. 

a)  Use  of  each  element. 
V)  Source  of  each. 

2.  Height,  as  known  from — 

a)  Height  of  mountains. 

b)  Flight  of  birds. 

c)  Clouds. 

d)  Balloon  ascensions. 

e)  Falling  stars. 

3.  Pressure.     Barometer. 

4.  Heating  of  the  air. 

a)  Effect  of  latitude. 

b)  Effect  of  altitude. 

c)  Effect  of  dust. 

d)  Effect  of  clouds. 

e)  Difference  in  the  effect  of  land  and  water  services  upon  the 

temperature  of  the  air. 


5.  Winds. 

a)  Cause. 

b)  Effect  of  earth's  rotation. 

(1)  Ferrel's  law. 

(2)  Whirl  around  the  poles. 

(3)  Pressure  at  the  tropics. 

c)  Wind  belts. 

(1)  Shifting. 

(2)  Limits. 

d)  Influence  on  climate. 

(1)  Ocean  winds. 

(2)  Land  winds. 

e)  Seasonal  winds. 

6.  Storms. 

a)  Local  storms. 

b)  Weather  maps. 

c)  "High "and  "lows." 

d)  Forecasts. 

e)  Work  of  the  Weather  Bureau. 
VII.  Sea. 

1.  Composition. 

2.  Temperature. 

3.  Movements. 
a)  Currents. 
b}  Tides. 

VIII.  Systematic  study  of  earth-forms. 

1.  Classification  of  features  according  to  their  origin  and  age. 

2.  The  life-history  of  the  various  features  illustrating  the  successive 
stages  in  the  normal  development  of  each,  and  the  characteris- 
tics of  the  young,  mature,  and  old  forms  of  each  class. 

3.  The  accidents  that  occur  and  their  effects. 

IX.  Geological  development  of  North  America,  United  States,  and 
New  Jersey,  making  the  topographical  and  geological  maps  special 
objects  of  study. 

The  order  of  work  is  the  same  as  that  given  under  North  America. 

B.  Field  and  laboratory  work. 

I.  Observations  of  the  moon. 

1.  Appearances. 

2.  Time  of  rising. 

3.  Position  in  the  sky  each  night  at  this  time. 


4.  Direction  of  travel. 

5.  Directions  of  the  concave  and  convex  sides. 

6.  Peroid  of  time  in  which  all  the  changes  occur. 
II.  Weather. 

Observations  of  local  storms. 

III.  Excursions  to  the  surrounding  country. 

IV.  Class-room  work. 

1.  Study  of  the  Harvard  Models,  representing  typical  earth-forms 
and  illustrating  the  effects  of  pysiographic  processes. 

2.  Study  of  the  contour  maps  of  physiographic  types. 

3.  The  study  and  construction  of — 
a)  Isothermal  charts. 

6)  Topographical  maps. 

c)  Rain  charts. 

d)  Weather  maps. 
<?)  Relief  maps. 

4.  Library  work  on  special  topics. 

C.  People. 

See  other  outline. 

A.  Advanced  treatment  of  the  continents  is  continued. 

I.  Europe,  Asia,  South  America,  Africa,  and  Australia. 
II.  Contrasts  and  similarities  in  structure,  surface,  and  climate  of  all 
the  continents. 

III.  Relation  between  diversity  of  surface,  irregularity  of  coast  line,  and 
advancement  of  life  in  each  continent. 

IV.  Dominant  form  of  relief  Jin  each  continent  and  its  influence  upon  the 
function  of  the  continent  in  nature  and  history. 

V.  Commerce  of  the  world. 

B.  Field  and  laboratory  as  indicated. 

C.  People. 


Let  us  now  turn  our  attention  to  the  question  of  practice,  which  I 
would  define  as  follows:  Practice  is  the  systematic  training  in  the 
actual  work  of  the  schoolroom  by  means  of  which  the  novice  acquires 
skill  in  performing  the  duties  that  belong  to  the  teacher,  gains  con- 
fidence in  his  own  ability  successfully  to  perform  these  duties,  and  thus 


verifies  the  theory  previously  attained.     The  work  of  practice  embraces 
three  phases,  namely : 

1.  Observation,  in  which  the  student  witnesses  the  work  of  skilled 
teachers  with  pupils.     The  work  thus  witnessed  must  be  a  model  of 
correct  method  and  good  teaching. 

2.  Instruction    by   the    pupil-teachers    themselves    of    classes    of 
children.     This  is  done  under  the  direction  of  critic-teachers. 

3.  Conferences,  in  which,  under  the  training-teachers,  the  observa- 
tion work,  the  teaching,  the  lesson-plans,  the  discipline  of  the  pupil- 
teachers  are  discussed,  and  careful  instruction  is  given  to  them. 

Perhaps  a  brief  description  of  our  organization  will  assist  in  making 
clear  the  plan  of  practice-teaching  at  Trenton  and  the  end  sought. 

We  have  a  three-years'  course,  each  year  being  divided  into  two 
half-year  classes  denominated  B  I  and  B  II,  A  I  and  A  II,  Sen.  I  and 
Sen.  II.  The  work  of  the  first  year  and  a  half  is  principally  academic, 
emphasis,  however,  being  laid  upon  the  methods  of  presenting  each 
subject.  Psychology  is  begun  in  the  A  I  class  and  history  of  education 
in  the  A II.  Thus  the  student  is  gradually  introduced  to  the  pro- 
fessional subjects,  which  increase  in  number  and  scope  as  the  course 
advances,  while  less  stress  is  laid  upon  the  academic  work.  Through 
this  means  the  student  becomes  grounded  in  the  idea  of  theory  accord- 
ing to  the  second  view  presented,  namely,  that  of  a  knowledge  of  the 
material  to  be  taught  and  the  plan  of  teaching  it.1 

He  is  now  ready  to  receive  the  instruction  in  practice.  This  begins 
in  the  A II  class  and  consists  of  observation  followed  by  discussion 
and  criticism.  The  training-teacher  takes  a  whole  division  of  thirty  or 
forty  students,  gives  them  preliminary  instruction  as  to  what  they  are 
to  observe,  and  then  goes  with  them  to  witness  a  model  class-exercise. 
At  first  attention  is  concentrated  upon  one  or  two  points — as,  for 
example,  how  to  hold  the  attention,  the  correlation  of  material,  plan 
of  the  lesson,  etc.  A  period  of  observation  is  followed  by  perhaps 
two  or  three  days'  discussion  of  the  lesson,  in  which  the  students  are 
closely  questioned  as  to  what  they  have  seen,  and  their  attention  is 
called  to  what  they  should  have  seen. 

Gradually  more  points  are  added  for  them  to  observe,  until  finally 
an  entire  model  lesson  is  included.  Then  the  student  is  required  to 
discuss  the  whole  lesson  without  any  aid,  except  that  of  a  general  out- 
line which  the  training-teacher  has  furnished.  This  completes  the 

1  Illustrated  by  the  work  in  geography  as  presented  in  the  foregoing  pages. 


preliminary  observation  work.  The  students,  however,  are  taught  how 
to  prepare  the  lesson-plans,  which  are  an  important  feature  of  the  work 
which  follows.  Ten  weeks  are  employed  in  the  foregoing,  which,  as 
the  exercises  are  daily,  would  seem  to  be  sufficient. 

The  second  stage  in  practice  consists  in  actual  teaching  by  the 
novice  himself.  The  young  student,  whose  attitude  in  school  has  been 
that  of  a  recipient  of  instruction,  begins  to  grasp  the  idea  that  he  has 
something  to  give,  and  to  feel  an  impulse  to  teach.  We  may  therefore 
speak  of  him  hereafter  as  a  pupil-teacher.  During  the  last  half  of  the 
A II  class,  and  the  whole  of  Sen.  I,  that  is,  three-quarters  of  a  year, 
about  one-third  of  the  time  of  the  pupil-teacher  is  employed  in  prac- 
tice. Each  class  is  divided  into  groups  of  not  more  than  ten,  who  are 
assigned  specific  work.  One  of  the  group  teaches  a  class  while  the 
others  observe.  This  instruction  is  carried  on  in  the  presence  of  the 
grade-teacher,  who  also  is  a  critic.  The  training-teacher  divides  his 
time  among  the  various  classes  that  are  going  on  simultaneously.  The 
pupil-teacher  who  is  to  conduct  the  lesson  must  present  a  written 
lesson-plan,  which  is  criticised  by  both  the  grade-  and  the  training- 
teacher.  Thus  every  precaution  is  taken  to  insure  most  careful  prepa- 
ration for  each  lesson  before  it  may  be  given.  This  serves  not  only  as 
a  protection  to  the  children  in  the  training-school,  but  it  also  instructs 
the  young  teacher  how  to  prepare  each  day's  work  when  he  enters  upon 
a  permanent  position. 

The  character  of  the  work  that  the  observers  have  done  is  readily 
discovered  in  the  weekly  conferences,  where  the  teaching  is  criticised, 
and  where  indifference  or  inattention  on  the  part  of  any  member  of 
the  group  will  soon  appear.  The  observation  by  the  pupil-teachers 
assumes  a  deeper  meaning  than  that  of  the  previous  term,  for  they  are 
held  to  a  closer  account,  and  are,  in  a  sense,  participants  of  each  reci- 
tation whether  conducted  by  themselves  or  by  a  classmate.  The 
observers  are  required  to  note  the  different  methods  employed,  to  see 
where  there  is  originality,  to  discover  the  source  of  power  or  cause  of 
weakness,  to  find  out  the  means  employed  to  awaken  interest,  to  con- 
sider the  matter  of  discipline,  and  to  measure  the  work  as  to  its  logical 
arrangement  and  execution.  Besides  this  general  observation  of  the 
whole  class,  each  pupil-teacher  is  encouraged  to  select  some  child  and 
watch  his  progress  from  day  to  day — a  practical  application  of  the 
theory  of  child  study. 

At  the  weekly  conferences  the  teaching  done  by  the  various  pupil- 


teachers  is  considered,  the  other  students  who  have  been  observers  are 
invited  to  express  themselves  with  greatest  freedom,  and  all  join  in  the 
discussion  of  the  work,  the  training-teacher  having  the  final  word. 
Besides  this  the  young  teacher  is  expected  to  go  to  both  the  grade-  and 
the  training-teacher  for  private  criticism.  He  thus  has  the  advantage 
of  the  wisdom  and  experience  of  trained  and  competent  critics,  who 
at  the  same  time  are  sympathetic  in  their  attitude  toward  him,  as  well 
as  just. 

This  work  of  observing,  teaching,  discussing,  and  criticising  is  con- 
tinued until  the  pupil-teachers  have  satisfied  the  training-teacher  that 
they  have  acquired  the  skill  and  confidence  which  have  been  pointed 
out  as  the  ends  to  be  reached.  Some  will  succeed  sooner  than  others, 
but  all  must  continue  until  the  result  demanded  has  been  attained,  and 
no  one  can  be  passed  to  the  next  class  or  graduated  until  this  has  been 

There  still  remains  the  work  of  the  Sen.  II,  the  graduating  class. 
In  the  meantime  the  study  of  theory  in  the  general  sense  —  that  of 
psychology,  history  of  education,  school  management,  philosophy  of 
education,  etc.  —  continues,  thus  broadening  the  young  novice's  view, 
preparing  him  better  to  understand  his  practice,  and  introducing  him 
farther  into  the  spirit  and  modes  of  thought  of  the  teacher. 

We  recognize  that  there  remains  another  phase  of  practice- teaching 
to  which  the  young  teacher  must  be  introduced.  The  model  school, 
with  its  small  classes,  its  full  complement  of  grade  teachers  who  are 
always  present  at  the  lessons,  its  splendid  equipment,  its  ideal  condi- 
tions, is  quite  different  from  the  average  school  where  a  position  is 
likely  to  be  secured.  Hence  we  send  all  of  the  members  of  the  gradu- 
ating class  out  into  the  state  for  a  month's  practice  in  the  public 
schools.  This  is  the  culmination  of  their  practice-work  and  it  brings 
them  into  contact  with  the  actual  school  life  upon  which  they  will 
enter  later.  Every  facility  is  afforded  them  by  the  public-school 
teachers  to  gain  experience.  A  final  report  is  made  to  the  normal 
school  as  to  the  character  of  work  done.  This  has  proved  an  excellent 
experience  to  our  young  men  and  women.  We  find  that  they  come 
back  from  their  four  weeks'  work  with  a  marked  gain  in  self-confidence 
and  a  deeper  appreciation  of  the  vocation  of  teaching.  The  principals 
to  whom  they  are  sent  give  them  kindly  criticism  and  instruction. 
Without  cordial  co-operation  from  the  teachers  of  the  state,  a  scheme 
of  this  kind  would  fail. 


Mutual  benefit  to  both  parties  also  often  follows.  If  a  new  teacher 
is  needed  for  the  succeeding  year  the  principal  has  a  good  oppor- 
tunity to  judge  of  the  merits  of  the  one  who  practices  with  him,  far 
better  than  could  be  afforded  by  correspondence  or  by  a  conference. 
On  the  other  hand  the  pupil-teacher  himself  is  placed  on  his  mettle  to 
prove  that  he  is  worthy  of  an  invitation  to  a  position.  Thus  the 
month's  experiment  often  results  in  a  satisfactory  appointment.  Of 
course  four  weeks'  work  is  not  sufficient  to  turn  the  novice  into  an 
experienced  teacher.  But  it  is  at  least  a  beginning  under  normal 
conditions  such  as  no  practice  school  can  furnish.  It  therefore  offers 
a  kind  of  training  that  is  seldom  provided  for  in  normal  schools,  a 
training  which  I  submit  is  most  important  and  highly  practical. 

I  have  thus  briefly  presented  the  idea  of  practice  which  controls  at 
Trenton.  While  it  is  not  claimed  to  be  ideal,  it  will  furnish  some 
features  for  the  consideration  of  the  association  which  may  be  unique, 
and  which  may  be  studied  not  without  profit.  At  least  this  scheme 
fairly  harmonizes  the  idea  of  theory  and  practice  as  set  forth  at  the 
beginning  of  this  paper,  and  in  practice  our  pupil-teachers  secure  con- 
siderable skill  and  confidence  in  the  teaching  and  management  of  a 
class  of  children  —  and  these  are  the  ends  that  we  understand  should 
be  sought  in  practice. 


I.  An  historical  account  of  what  was  formerly  done  by  such  institu- 

II.  A  brief  account  of  what  is  now  being  done  under  the  following 
headings : 

A.  Universities  : 

1.  In  which  there  is  a  separate  department  of  education. 

2.  In  which  there  is  a  distinct  "school  of  education."     (To 
what  extent  and  how   is  a  relation   of  theory  to  practice 
shown  ?     To    what   extent   do   universities   depend   upon 
actually   proved   teaching   power  as  an   evidence  of  one's 
understanding  of  the  relation  of  theory  to  practice  ?    What 
difficulties  are  in  the  way  of  such  a  requirement  ?     To  what 
extent  does   the  maturity   of    university   students  render 
actual  teaching  under  supervision  unnecessary?) 

B.  In  Normal  Schools  : 

1.  In  which  the  management  of  the  practice  school  and  the 
supervision  of  the  practice  teaching  is  a  separate  department. 

2.  In  which  the  various  departments  of  the  school  control  the 
course  of  study  in  the  practice  school,  and  in  their  classes 
illustrate  with  pupils  from  the  practice  school  the  method  of 
handling  the  material. 

3.  In  which  actual  skill  in  class-room  management  and  teach- 
ing is  the  test  of  one's  appreciation  of  the  relation  of  theory 
to  practice. 

C.  In  City  Training  Schools  : 

1.  In  which  courses  in  theory  and  observation  are  required. 

2.  In   which   courses   in   theory   and   regular   cadetting   are 

3.  In  which    courses  in  theory,  observation,   cadetting,   and 
conferences  are  required. 



III.  What  is  the  most  effective  relation  of  theory  to  practice  ? 

A.  In  Universities  : 

1.  In  which  there  is  a  separate  department  of  education. 

2.  In  which  there  is  a  "school  of  education."     (How  should 
students  be  trained  for  teaching  in  secondary  schools  ?    For 
the  work  of  superintendents  ?     The  uses  and  organization 
of  demonstration  schools  and  experiment  schools.) 

B.  In  Normal  Schools  : 

1.  In  which  the  theory  is  given  by  one  set  of  instructors  and 
the  practice  under  the  supervision  of  another  set. 

2.  In  which  each  department  is  responsible  for  its  own  course 
of  study  in  the  practice  school  and  for  the  supervision  of  the 
practice  teaching  in  that  particular  subject.     (What  are  the 
objections  to  the  second  plan  ?     In  what  ways  may  it  be 
made  to  supplement  the  first  plan  ?     To  what  extent  is  it 
(a)  possible  and  (b)  desirable  that  instruction  in  "special 
method"  in  such  subjects  as  reading,  arithmetic,  etc.,  be 
given  in  the   regular  normal-school  classes  in  these  sub- 
jects ?     What  are  the  most  serious  defects  in  the  supervision 
of   practice  teaching  when   done  by  the  regular  normal- 
school  instructors  ?     In  gaining  teaching  skill,  what  are  the 
relative  values  of,  and  the  order  in  which  they  should  come, 
(a)  a  study  and  reflection  upon  theory,  (b}  observation  of 
excellent  teaching,  and  (c)  actual  teaching  ?) 

C.  In   City  Training    Schools    (Same    questions  as  for   normal 
schools)  : 

IV.  In  such  a  plan  as  is  proposed  for  any  one  of  these  schools,  indi- 
dicate  the  relative  values  of  and  what  you  conceive  to  be  the 
essentials  of : 

A.  History  of  Education. 

B.  Psychology. 

C.  Pedagogy. 

D.  School  Organization  and  Management. 

E.  Philosophy  of  Education. 

F.  Ethics. 

G.  Sociology. 

H.  Special  method  in  various  school  subjects. 
I.    Actual  teaching  experience.     How  much  and  under  what  con- 
ditions ? 




CHARLES  DE  GARMO,  Chairman. 
C.  A.  McMuRRY,  Secretary. 

In  the  election  of  officers  Wilbur  S.  Jackman  was  chosen  President. 
C.  P.  Gary  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Executive  Committee  to  fill 
the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Edward  R.  Shaw. 

Charles  A.  McMurry  was  re-elected  Secretary-Treasurer. 

The  following  resolution  was  adopted  : 

Resolved,  That  the  first  meeting  of  each  session  shall  be  held  on  the  day- 
before  the  meeting  of  the  National  Education  Association,  the  second 
meeting  on  some  later  day ;  both  meetings  being  executive  sessions  at  which 
only  active  members  and  those  specially  invited  by  the  President  of  the 
Society  shall  be  present. 

After  full  discussion  of  the  character  of  the  papers  to  be  prepared 
for  the  YEARBOOKS  a  motion  was  adopted  to  appoint  a  committee  of 
three  which  should  prepare  a  plan  for  an  investigation  of  the  topic, 
"  The  Relation  of  Theory  to  Practice  in  Teaching." 

Mr.  John  A.  Keith  was  afterward  appointed  chairman  of  this  com- 



Frank  G.  Blair,  State  Normal  School,  Charleston,  111. 
Richard  G.  Boone,  superintendent,  Cincinnati,  O. 
Francis  B.  Brant,  1637  S.  Fifteenth  street,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Elmer  E.  Brown,  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 
George  P.  Brown,  editor,  Bloomington,  111. 
Martin  G.  Brumbaugh,  3324  Walnut  street,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
William  L.  Bryan,  University  of  Indiana,  Bloomington,  Ind. 
George  V.  Buchanan,  614  W.  Seventh  street,  Sedalia,  Mo. 
Edward  F.  Buchner,  University  of  Alabama,  University,  Ala. 
Frederick  Burk,  State  Normal  School,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Nicholas  Murray  Butler,  Columbia  University,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
C.  P.  Cary,  Madison,  Wis. 
Clarence  F.  Carroll,  Worcester,  Mass. 
John  W.  Cook,  State  Normal  School,  DeKalb,  111. 
Ellwood  I.  Cubberly,  Stanford  University,  California. 
Washington  S.  Dearmont,  State  Normal  School,  Cape  Girardeau,  Mo. 
Charles  DeGarmo,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y, 
John  Dewey,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 
Edwin  D.  Dexter,  Urbana,  111. 

Richard  E.  Dodge,  Columbia  University,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
F.  B.  Dresslar,  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 
Samuel  T.  Dutton,  Columbia  University,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Charles  B.  Dyke,  Kamehameha  School,  Honolulu,  H.  I. 
W,  H.  Elson,  Grand  Rapids,  Mich. 
David  Felmley,  State  Normal  University,  Normal,  111. 
Frank  A.  Fitzpatrick,  Boston,  Mass. 
Charles  B.  Gilbert,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  D.  Appleton  &  Co. 
Newell  D.  Gilbert,  DeKalb,  111. 
J.  P.  Gordy,  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  O. 
James  M.  Greenwood,  Kansas  City,  Mo. 
W.  N.  Hailman,  Boston,  Mass.,  Ainsworth  &  Co. 
Reuben  P.  Halleck,  Boys'  High  School,  Louisville,  Ky. 
Rufus  H.  Halsey,  State  Normal  School,  Oshkosh,  Wis. 
Walter  L.  Hervey,  320  Manhattan  avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Edgar  L.  Hewett,  Las  Vegas,  N.  M. 
M.  J.  Holmes,  State  Normal  University,  Normal,  111. 
Jeremiah  W.  Jenks,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 



Lewis  H.  Jones,  State  Normal  College,  Ypsilanti,  Mich. 
Grant  Carr,  Normal  School,  Oswego,  N.  Y. 
J.  A.  Keith,  Northern  Illinois  State  Normal  School,  DeKalb,  111. 
Ossian  H.  Lang,  editor,  61  E.  Ninth  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
George  H.  Locke,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 
Livingston  C,  Lord,  State  Normal  School,  Charleston,  111. 
G.  W.  A.  Luckey,  Lincoln,  Neb. 

Frank  A.  Manny,  Ethical  Culture  Schools,  109  W.  Fifty-fourth  street, 
New  York,  N.  Y. 

Guy  E.  Maxwell,  State  Normal  School,  Winona,  Minn. 

William  H.  Maxwell,  superintendent  of  schools,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Charles  McKenny,  Normal  School,  Milwaukee,  Wis. 

Charles  A.  McMurry,  State  Normal  School,  DeKalb,  111. 

Frank  M.  McMurry,  Teachers  College,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Israel  C.  McNeil,  Normal  School,  West  Superior,  Wis. 

Will  S.  Monroe,  State  Normal  School,  Westfield,  Mass. 

Ernest  C.  Moore,  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif. 

Frank  Morton,  Lowell  High  School,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Theodore  B.  Noss,  State  Normal  School,  California,  Pa. 

M.  V.  O'Shea,  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wis. 

Simon  N.  Patten,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

John  T.  Prince,  West  Newton,  Mass. 

C.  M.  Richards,  230  W.  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Stuart  H.  Rowe,  30  Academy  street,  New  Haven,  Conn. 

J.  E.  Russell,  Teachers  College,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Myron  T.  Scudder,  State  Normal  School,  New  Paltz,  N.  Y. 

Levi  Seeley,  State  Normal  School,  482  W.  State  street,  Trenton,  N.  J. 

David  E.  Smith,  Teachers  College,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Z.  X.  Snyder,  State  Normal  School,  Greeley,  Colo. 

F.  Louis  Soldan,  Ninth  and  Locust  streets,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

Edward  D.  Starbuck,  Leland  Stanford  University,  Palo  Alto,  Calif. 

W.  S.  Sutton,  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Tex. 

C.  C.  VanLiew,  State  Normal  School,  Chico,  Calif. 

James  H.  VanSickle,  Baltimore,  Md. 

Samuel  Weir,  Clarion  Normal  School,  Clarion,  Pa. 

J.  J.  Wilkinson,  Illinois. 

Lightner  Witmer,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

L.  E.  Wolfe,  San  Antonio,  Tex. 


Edwin  A.  Alderman,  president  Tulane  University,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Frederick  Bolton,  Iowa  City,  la. 

W.  H.  Burnham,  Clark  University,  Worcester,  Mass. 


B.  C.  Caldwell,  president  Louisiana  State  Normal,  Natchitoches,  La. 
P.  P.  Claxton,  Southern  Education  Board,  Knoxville,  Tenn. 
Newton  C.  Dougherty,  Peoria,  111. 

Augustus  S.  Downing,  One  Hundred  and  Nineteenth  street  and  Second 
avenue,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Frank  M.  Darling,  320  W.  Sixty-first  place,  Chicago. 

Paul  Henry  Hanus,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Mrs.  Josephine  W.  Heermans,  Brunswick  Hotel,  Kansas  City,  Mo. 

John  R.  Kirk,  State  Normal  School,  Kirksville,  Mo. 

Henry  E.  Kratz,  Calumet,  Mich. 

Isabel  Lawrence,  Normal  School,  St.  Cloud,  Minn. 

Charles  D.  Lowry,  307  Touhy  avenue,  Chicago. 

Herman  T.  Luckens,  Normal  School,  California,  Pa. 

President  E.  O.  Lyte,  Normal  School,  Millersville,  Pa. 

C.  E.  Mann,  St.  Charles,  111. 
David  R.  Major,  Columbus,  O. 

J.  F.  Millspaugh,  State  Normal  School,  Winona,  Minn. 

Paul  Monroe,  Columbia  University,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

John  H.  Phillips,  Birmingham,  Ala. 

J.  F.  Reigart,  109  W.  Fifty-fourth  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Lucy  M.  Salmon,  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

H.  W.  Shryock,  State  Normal  School,  Carbondale,  111. 

Herbert  M.  Slauson,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 

Sarah  J.  Walter,  Willimantic,  Conn. 

Charles  H.  Thurber,  Ginn  &  Co.,  Boston,  Mass. 

J.  M.  Wilkinson,  Emporia,  Kan. 

A.  S.  Whitney,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 


Miss  Ada  VanStone  Harris,  City  Schools,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 
Frank  Bachman,  Normal  College,  Athens,  O. 
Jesse  D.  Burks,  557  W.  Twelfth  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
R.  H.  Beggs,  Whittier  School,  Denver,  Colo. 
Burgess  Shank,  Berea,  O. 

J.  W.  Stearns,  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wis. 
Joseph  S.  Taylor,   2275  Acqueduct  avenue,  University  Heights,  New 
York,  N.  Y. 

Guy  Montrose  Whipple,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Arthur  C.  Clements,  State  University,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Zonia  Baber,  School  of  Education,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

C.  M.  Bardwell,  Aurora,  111. 

E.  C.  Branson,  Normal  School,  Athens,  Ga. 


Stratton  D.  Brooks,  Mason  street,  Boston,  Mass. 

E.  W.  Chubb,  Athens,  O. 

David  E.  Cloyd,  116  Nassau  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Wm.  J.  Crane,  Marshalltown,  Iowa. 

Wm.  M.  Davidson,  Topeka,  Kan. 

Andrew  W.  Edson,  Park  avenue  and  Fifty-ninth  street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

A.  Kaswell  Ellis,  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Tex. 

George  M.  Forbes,  Rochester  University,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

R.  S.  Garwood,  Marshall,  Mich. 

E.  C.  Glass,  Lynchburg,  Va. 

John  Glotfelter,  Emporia,  Kan. 

W.  H.  Hatch,  Oak  Park,  111. 

J.  W.  Henninger,  State  Normal  School,  Macomb,  111. 

W.  W.  Howe,  White  Hall,  N.  Y. 

J.  I.  Jegi,  Normal  School,  Milwaukee,  Wis. 

John  A.  MacVannel,  Columbia  University,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

R.  N.  Roark,  Kentucky  University,  Lexington,  Ky. 

J.  R.  Street,  University  of  Syracuse,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Wm.  A.  Millis,  Crawfordsville,  Ind. 

R.  R.  Reeder,  Hastings-on-Hudson,  New  York. 

Emily  J.  Rice,  School  of  Education,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  111. 

O.  I.  Woodley,  Menominee,  Mich. 







First  Yearbook,  1895.— Pressing  Problems,  Charles  De  Garmo;  Concentra- 
tion, Frank  McMurry ;  The  Culture  Epochs,  C.  C.  Van  Liew ;  Course  of 

Study  in  Primary  Grades,  Mrs.  Lida  B.  McMurry. 

140  pp.,  8vo,  net,  75  cents;  postpaid $0-79 

First  Supplement  to  the  First  Yearbook. —  Discussion  of  the  above  topics. 

72  pp.,  8vo,  net,  25  cents ;  postpaid .  .  .  28 

Second  Supplement  to  the  First  Yearbook. —  Interest  as  Related  to  Will, 

John  Dewey.     Revised  and  republished  by  the  Society. 

40  pp.,  8vo,  net,  25  cents  ;  postpaid  . 27 

Second  Yearbook,  1896. —  Isolation  and  Unification,  Emerson  E.  White  and 

Charles  A.  McMurry ;  The  Culture  Epochs,  H.  T.  Lukens,  Seeley,  Felmley, 

Hinsdale,  and  others;  Literature  in  the  High  School,  J.  Rose  Colby. 

174  pp.,  8vo,  net,  75  cents;  postpaid 80 

Supplement  to  the  Second  Yearbook.— Training  for  Citizenship,  Jeremiah  W. 


32  pp.,  8vo,  net,  2$  cents;  postpaid 27 

Third  Yearbook,  1897. —  Moral  Education,  John  Dewey,  Charles  De  Garmo, 

William  T.  Harris,  and  John  Adams ;  Training  for  Citizenship,  Edmund 

J.  James,  C.  C.  Van  Liew,  Jeremiah  W.  Jenks,  Frank  H.  Dixon,  Charles 

A.  McMurry,  and  others. 

144  pp.,  8vo,  net,  75  cents;  postpaid 80 

Supplement  to  the  Third  Yearbook. — Observation  and  Apperception,  Arnold 

Tompkins;  The  Application  of  the  Principles  of  Herbart  to  Secondary 

Schools,  Otto  Frick  and  Dr.  Friedel. 

32  pp.,  8vo,  net,  25  cents;  postpaid 27 

Fourth  Yearbook,  1898. — Knowledge  and  Will,  James  Seth ;  The  Social  Func- 
tion of  United  States  History,  John  Bach  McMaster,  M.  G.  Brumbaugh,  and 

Frank  Blair;  The  Social  Function  of  Geography,  Spencer  Trotter  and  W. 

M.  Davis;  The  Discussions  at  Chattanooga,  February,  1898. 

120  pp.,  8vo,  net,  75  cents;  postpaid 79 

Supplement  to  the  Fourth  Yearbook. —  A  course  of  Study  in  Geography  for 

the  Common  School,  Charles  A.  McMurry. 

56  pp.,  8  vo,  net,  25  cents;  postpaid .27 

Fifth  Yearbook,  1899. —  Significance  of  the  Frontier  in  American  History, 

Frederick  J.  Turner,  with  discussion;  Mediaeval  and  Modern  History  in  the 

High  School,  James  Harvey  Robinson,  with  Discussion;  The  Social  End 

of  Education,  I.  W.  Howerth,  with  Discussion. 

112  pp.,  8vo,  net,  75  cents ;  postpaid 79 

Supplement  to  the  Fifth  Yearbook. —  Commercial  Education,  Cheesman  A. 


1 18  pp.,  8vo,  net,  50  cents;  postpaid  54 

Price  for  the  set  of  five  Yearbooks  and  six  Supplements,  1,040  pp.,  8vo,  cloth, 

net,  $5.00 ;  postpaid .         .         .         .  5-29 



First  Yearbook,  1902,  Part  I. —  Some  Principles  in  the  Teaching  of  History, 

Lucy  M.  Salmon. 

76  pp.,  8vo,  net,  50  cents ;  postpaid -53 

First  Yearbook,  1902,  Part  II.  — The  Progress  of  Geography  in  the  Schools, 

W.  M.  Davis. 

58  pp.,  8vo,  net,  50  cents ;  postpaid 53 

Second  Yearbook,  1903,  Part  I. — The  Course  of  Study  in  History  in  the  Com- 
mon School.    Papers  by  Rice,  McMurry,  Lawrence,  and  Page. 
58  pp.,  8vo,  net,  50  cents;  postpaid 53 

Second  Yearbook,  1903,  Part  II. — Relation  of  Theory  to  Practice  in  Teaching. 
By  Felmley  and  Seeley. 
64  pp.,  8vo,  net,  50  cents;  postpaid     .         .         ,         ,         .         .         .         •      -54 






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UNlO  1979 

MAY  24  79 

LD  21A-30m-5,'75 


General  Library 

University  of  California